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Biological Evolution is a scientific theory

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Voting Style: Open Point System: 7 Point
Started: 9/18/2014 Category: Education
Updated: 2 years ago Status: Post Voting Period
Viewed: 640 times Debate No: 61945
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Scientific theory is a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world that is acquired through the scientific method and repeatedly tested and confirmed through observation and experimentation.


Scientific theory is a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world that is acquired through the scientific method and repeatedly tested and confirmed through observation and experimentation.

I have a theory that it will rain tomorrow? Now, can I say that is a scientific theory because I know from the past it rained a lot on September 19 in Nebraska? It has repeatedly occurred in the past 3 years--lets assume-- and I carefully observed the cloud, the wind, the hot and cold air, and the forth, and I then reasonably predict it rains at this time of the year. This is a personal hypothesis or guess about what is about to happen in which I really cannot obtain all the information about what causes the rain, and therefore it is not a scientific theory. Similarly, Biological evolution is a widely accept hypothesis, and just because it is widely accepted does not mean it is correct or it is a scientific theory. Let's just say it is a theory but not scientific. First, biological evolution under the theory occurs very slowly and it is impossible to obtain exact variables and a comparing group through 2 centuries because we cannot live that long. Second, a scientific theory can be confirmed and is applicable to subsequences. Here no one can say we are the result of biological evolution. Because we cannot explain why there are so many flaws and elements does not fit in survival the fittest still exist. For instance, why males have nipples? why we have cancers why we have wisdom teeth?
In conclusion, the theory of Biological Evolution is a guess in a layman's term. Simply dressing up its name does not make it a scientific theory. It is a theory, but not scientific.
Debate Round No. 1


Look up Chaos theory might help you in your study of Meteorology

//First, biological evolution under the theory occurs very slowly and it is impossible to obtain exact variables and a comparing group through 2 centuries because we cannot live that long//

Lets start off with the definition of biological evolution "changes in gene frequencies in populations"

Evolution happens every generation not in your own lifespan which means every different species evolves at different rates. Therefore stating it is slow shows how uneducated you are in this field of study. As humans can observe many species evidence shown in Lenski's E. coli Long-term Experiment.

You seem to be only looking at the species of sapien? why? Its called Biological Evolution theory not Human Evolution Theory.

Why we have Wisdom teeth?

Jaws could comfortably accommodate all 32 teeth, including the third molars. You have to go back about 100 million years ago to a gene called MYH16 had a mutations in this gene which lead to shorter jaws. However it happened, the change lessened the amount of space available to teeth in the mouth. But some people never develop wisdom teeth in fact, these teeth don't appear in about 35 percent of the population.

Why males have nipples?

After three or four weeks, all embryos develop parallel mammary ridges called milk lines before the 23rd chromosomes, XX or XY, have a chance to tinker with sexual dimorphisms, or physical traits that distinguish biological males from females. As fetuses grow, those milk lines that extend from the top of the chest to the lower abdomen recede and typically leave behind a pair of nipples, along with milk-producing glands called lobules, ducts and the fatty tissue in between. Without a protein like PTHrP stepping into action to trigger hormonal roadblocks as it does in mice, human embryos, male and female alike, are given the same set of internal plumbing in the breast region. Then, during puberty, estrogen in girls spurs breast tissue and mammary gland development.
Therefore, the simplest explanation for men having nipples is that all human embryos start out with them, and evolution didn't get around to selecting against their existence on the male bust. Since nipples and healthy breast development are so closely linked with female reproductive success, evolutionary biologists suppose that the adaptive pressure to wean out male nipples wasn't strong enough.

Why we have cancers?
Genetic predisposition to cancer. This means that your genetic make up makes it more likely that you will develop cancer. Is one reason also cancers are all different and can have multiple reasons on how cancer is caused.

"Cancer is far from a single well-defined disease which we can identify and eradicate," said Dr Athena Aktipis, Director, Human and Social Evolution, Center for Evolution and Cancer at the University of California, San Francisco. "It is highly diverse and evolutionary theory allows us to consider cancer as a highly complex and evolving ecosystem. This approach can improve the understanding, treatment and prevention of a number of different cancer types."

Skin cancer and melanin

To fully understand how and why evolution is scientific, it's important to first know what the generally accepted criteria for scientific theories are. Scientific theories must be:

Consistent (internally & externally)
Parsimonious (sparing in proposed entities or explanations)
Useful (describes & explains observed phenomena)
Empirically Testable & Falsifiable
Based upon Controlled, Repeated Experiments
Correctable & Dynamic (changes are made as new data is discovered)
Progressive (achieves all that previous theories have & more)
Tentative (admits that it might not be correct rather than asserting certainty)

All evidence supports evolutionary theory and common descent; absolutely no evidence points to anything else. Evolution is also externally consistent: it does not contradict solid findings in any other physical science. If evolution did contradict physics or chemistry, that would be a significant problem.

Evolution is naturalistic and does not add unnecessary concepts, entities, or processes to our understanding of the universe. Evolution, which is just genetic change over time, does not rely upon any entities or concepts which do not otherwise exist in any scientific model. Common descent does not require us to imagine anything new or unusual in the universe. This means is the theory of evolution is the simplest and most reliable explanation of the diversity of life on our planet. Everything offered as alternatives requires us to imagine new entities not used or needed in any other scientific model, like gods.

Evolution is the unifying principle of the life sciences, which includes medicine. This means that much of what is done in the biological and medical sciences could not occur without the background premise of evolution. I've yet to see any Evolution Deniers willing to give up modern medicine. Evolutionary theory also suggests lots of problems for scientists to work on because it makes predictions which, in turn, provide experiments to perform in order to better understand what's going on in the natural world. Evolution thus provides an overall paradigm for solving current problems within the life sciences.

Evolution has been tested many time in the last 150 years to today from Lenski's experiment, Domestication. EDAR gene, KRTHAP1, FOXP2.

Correctable & Dynamic
Evolution is based solely on the evidence, thus if the evidence changes so will the theory; in fact, subtle changes to aspects of evolutionary theory can be observed by anyone who regularly reads biology journals and pays attention to the scientific debates. Evolutionary theory today is not quite the same as the evolutionary theory which Charles Darwin originally devised and wrote about, though he was correct enough that much of what he discovered continues to b valid. Since there are gaps in our understanding and evidence, we can expect to see more changes in the future as our understanding expands.

Theory is Progressive
The idea that a scientific theory should be progressive means that a new scientific theory should build on earlier scientific theories. In other words, a new theory must explain what previous theories explained at least as well as they did while providing a new understanding for additional material " something which evolution does. Another way to see how scientific theories need to be progressive is that they can be shown to be superior to competing theories. It should be possible to compare several explanations for a phenomenon and find that one does a much better job than the others. This is true of evolution.


callmenerdy forfeited this round.
Debate Round No. 2


Understanding evolution helps us solve biological problems that impact our lives. There are excellent examples of this in the field of medicine. To stay one step ahead of pathogenic diseases, researchers must understand the evolutionary patterns of disease-causing organisms. To control hereditary diseases in people, researchers study the evolutionary histories of the disease-causing genes. In these ways, a knowledge of evolution can improve the quality of human life.

Why do we always look at the animalia kingdom when we talk about biological evolution as a 'Evolutionist Researcher' what i like to call my self. Talk a bit about the plantae Kingdom?

Case: In 2004 he and his colleagues collected more field mustard seeds from the same sites that Sim had visited seven years earlier. They thawed out some of the 1997 seeds and then reared both sets of plants under identical conditions. The newer plants grew to smaller sizes, produced fewer flowers, and, most dramatically, produced those flowers eight days earlier in the spring. The changing climate had, in other words, driven the field mustard plants to evolve over just a few years. "It was serendipity that we had the seeds lying around," says Weis.

Read the full story here

Domestication made major changes to thousands of plants
In all the fruit trees, Pomes, Citrus Fruits, Nut Trees, Bananas, Breadfruit, Durian, Ensete, Fig, Jackfruit, Passionfruit, Barley, Oats, Rice, Rye, Sorghum, Wheat, Peseudocerals such as Sunflowers, All Legumes, All Berries, All Vegatables, Herbs and spices, Oil producing plants, Commodities (Plants grown principally for animal food or soil enrichment ), Ornamental Plants, Cotton, Flax, Jute. Pretty much every plant that we eat and use. Our diets and cultures have changed thousands of plants dramtically.

Polar bears today are thinner and less healthy than those of 20 years ago.

Many fish species are moving northward in search of cooler waters. (New adaptions to a new enviroment)

Quino checkerspot butterfly learned to lay its eggs on a new host plant.

Tawny owls (Strix aluco) can be light gray or brown, depending on the genes they inherit from their parents. As snow cover in Finland has declined since the late 1970s, the light gray owls, best camouflaged during snow, no longer have much of an advantage, and scientists have shown that brown owls are now much more common.

Changes of evolution is culture, agriculture changing our diet dramtically, humans became physically smaller, teeth became smaller,

Lactose tolerance throughout whole life

24 identified genetic adaptions that relate to malaria resistance

CCR5 gene originated 4000years ago resistance to HIV/AIDS

East Asians mutation in the EDAR gene, thicker hair shafts, more sweat glands, teeth and smaller breasts.
Standard EDAR gene which Africans and Europeans have.

Framingham Women would be 2cm shorter, 1kg heavier

Hair Keratin gene KRTHAP1 was lost out of 10 functional type 1 Keratin gene, this can cause thinning of human body hair.

Loss of sarcomeric myosin gene MYH16 lead to smaller masticatory muscles

Loss of CASPASE12 a crysteinyl aspartate proteinase.

Segmental duplication had a role in creating new primate genes and shaping human genetic variation

Modern Humans and Neanderthals share the FOXP2 gene variant associated with brain development and speech. (Chimps have two amino acid differences in FOXP2 compared to Sapiens)

86 genes were lost in the homo lineage after separating with the common ancestor with the chimpanzees.

Evolved only in the Homo lineage, HAR1F related to brain development

Evolved only in the Homo lineage, HAR2 development of the opposable thumb

CpG dinucleotides mutate roughly 10 times more often than the average nucleotide in the genome

Common Ancestor of mtDNA types existed 140,000 " 290 000 years ago, mtMRCA is the direct matrilineal ancestor of all living humans. Other women would have lived at the same time and passed nuclear genes down but their mitochondrial lineages were lost over time.

Modern Human mtDNA has an African Origan

Y chromosome 70,000 years ago originated in Africa

Neolithic farming revolution provided enough mutations to accelerate genetic change. Infectious diseases were another consequence of the early urban populations and a new source of selection pressures. The origins of many recently adapted genes have now been traced to this period, creating effects such as regional difference in skin colour and skeletal gracility. Adaptions cause less muscle strength and more intelligence. Less aggressive human behaviours by 5000 years ago. Asaptive alleles were coming into existence at a rate about 100 times faster during the Pleistocene period.
Experts can easily determine race from skeletal evidence alone

Alongside fossil and archaeological finds, genetic studies show that the different groups of people in the world today all originated in Africa. Our species, Homo sapiens, began to evolve there about 400,000 years ago. By 150,000 years ago some African fossils show clear modern human features. Around 60,000 years ago, the first small groups of modern humans left Africa and began to disperse through Asia all the way to Australia, and also into Europe.
Mitochondrial DNA is found in tiny structures (mitochondria) in our cells that convert energy from food into a form cells can use. Passed from mother to child. Reveals information about your maternal lineage and where your mother's female ancestors may have lived.

Y chromosome DNA is contained in a sex-determining chromosome only found in the cells of men. (men only) Passed from father to son. Reveals information about your paternal lineage and where your father's male ancestors may have lived.
Nuclear DNA is packaged in 23 pairs of chromosomes in the nucleus of each human cell. One of each pair is inherited from the mother, the other from the father. Inherited from both parents. Reveals information about your ethnic ancestry and the percentage of any DNA inherited from Neanderthals or other extinct human species.

Genetic markers are specific DNA sequences whose location on the chromosome is known

Researchers compare thousands of genetic markers within a person's DNA with those of other people across the world. The similarities and differences allow scientists to reconstruct population histories and estimate where our ancestors lived at certain times in the past.

As well as providing information about ethnic ancestry, Nuclear DNA reveals episodes of interbreeding between modern humans and other human species. DNA research reveals the genetic legacy some of us have inherited from our extinct cousins, the Neanderthals. When modern humans left Africa, they interbred with Neanderthal populations. This probably occurred in western Asia, and perhaps also elsewhere. These events mean that non-African people today share around two per cent of their DNA with Neanderthals.

The studies compared the genome of a Neanderthal with those of hundreds of modern humans, both from Eurasia, where our ancestors met Neanderthals, and from sub-Saharan Africa, where there would have been no interbreeding.
However, Neanderthal DNA was also found in parts of the human genome associated with diseases such as diabetes, lupus, biliary cirrhosis and Crohn"s disease, which causes inflammation of the gut.

Domestication of animals evolved differ species
Gray wolf (Canis lupus) to Dog (Canis lupus familiaris)
Mouflon (Ovis orientalis) to a Sheep (Ovis aries)
Look up every single species and find out how they evolved, I hope you will learn from this debat


callmenerdy forfeited this round.
Debate Round No. 3
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Reasons for voting decision: FF Pro would do better to include sources to back up his many claims.
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Reasons for voting decision: Con forfeits.