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Biological Evolution is a scientific theory

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Voting Style: Open Point System: 7 Point
Started: 10/3/2014 Category: Science
Updated: 3 years ago Status: Post Voting Period
Viewed: 626 times Debate No: 62618
Debate Rounds (3)
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Definition of Biological Evolution "changes in gene frequencies in population"

Evolution is observed every day and even us humans are a part of evolution.

My opposition can try to disprove evolution


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Debate Round No. 1


Sommerville forfeited this round.


BIGATHEKEKKER forfeited this round.
Debate Round No. 2


Since how my opponent is 2years old i will be focusing on what the commentators have commented.

Commentators if your going to argue know what your arguing. thank you Secular_Mike for teaching Emilrose and thank you Athiest-independent for correcting me as you can see i have changed the title.

Emilrose "Of course its a scientific theory. "Theory" being the keyword"//
I was hoping by putting SCIENTIFIC in before theory will stop people from misunderstanding terminology. Guess what Emilrose different subjects have different terminology. Even Athiest-Independent commented theories are the closet thing to fact.
Micro evolution has been observed but macro evolution hasn't. By saying this means you have no clue what you are even talking about. Macro Evolution is the EXACT same thing as micro evolution the difference is time scale.

Unicellular to multicellular has already been done by evolutionary biologist Michael Travisano of the University of Minnesota, co-author of a study Jan. 17 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Dragonfang if in 1000years dogs can evolve into different breeds from size, shape and genetically different from the Grey wolf, think about how much diversity can come in billion years.

Understanding evolution helps us solve biological problems that impact our lives. There are excellent examples of this in the field of medicine. To stay one step ahead of pathogenic diseases, researchers must understand the evolutionary patterns of disease-causing organisms. To control hereditary diseases in people, researchers study the evolutionary histories of the disease-causing genes. In these ways, a knowledge of evolution can improve the quality of human life.

Why do we always look at the animalia kingdom when we talk about biological evolution as a 'Evolutionist Researcher' what i like to call my self. Talk a bit about the plantae Kingdom?

Case: In 2004 he and his colleagues collected more field mustard seeds from the same sites that Sim had visited seven years earlier. They thawed out some of the 1997 seeds and then reared both sets of plants under identical conditions. The newer plants grew to smaller sizes, produced fewer flowers, and, most dramatically, produced those flowers eight days earlier in the spring. The changing climate had, in other words, driven the field mustard plants to evolve over just a few years. "It was serendipity that we had the seeds lying around," says Weis.

Read the full story here

Domestication made major changes to thousands of plants
In all the fruit trees, Pomes, Citrus Fruits, Nut Trees, Bananas, Breadfruit, Durian, Ensete, Fig, Jackfruit, Passionfruit, Barley, Oats, Rice, Rye, Sorghum, Wheat, Peseudocerals such as Sunflowers, All Legumes, All Berries, All Vegatables, Herbs and spices, Oil producing plants, Commodities (Plants grown principally for animal food or soil enrichment ), Ornamental Plants, Cotton, Flax, Jute. Pretty much every plant that we eat and use. Our diets and cultures have changed thousands of plants dramtically.

Polar bears today are thinner and less healthy than those of 20 years ago.

Many fish species are moving northward in search of cooler waters. (New adaptions to a new enviroment)

Quino checkerspot butterfly learned to lay its eggs on a new host plant.

Tawny owls (Strix aluco) can be light gray or brown, depending on the genes they inherit from their parents. As snow cover in Finland has declined since the late 1970s, the light gray owls, best camouflaged during snow, no longer have much of an advantage, and scientists have shown that brown owls are now much more common.

Changes of evolution is culture, agriculture changing our diet dramtically, humans became physically smaller, teeth became smaller,

Lactose tolerance throughout whole life

24 identified genetic adaptions that relate to malaria resistance

CCR5 gene originated 4000years ago resistance to HIV/AIDS

East Asians mutation in the EDAR gene, thicker hair shafts, more sweat glands, teeth and smaller breasts.
Standard EDAR gene which Africans and Europeans have.

Framingham Women would be 2cm shorter, 1kg heavier

Hair Keratin gene KRTHAP1 was lost out of 10 functional type 1 Keratin gene, this can cause thinning of human body hair.

Loss of sarcomeric myosin gene MYH16 lead to smaller masticatory muscles

Loss of CASPASE12 a crysteinyl aspartate proteinase.

Segmental duplication had a role in creating new primate genes and shaping human genetic variation

Modern Humans and Neanderthals share the FOXP2 gene variant associated with brain development and speech. (Chimps have two amino acid differences in FOXP2 compared to Sapiens)

86 genes were lost in the homo lineage after separating with the common ancestor with the chimpanzees.

Evolved only in the Homo lineage, HAR1F related to brain development

Evolved only in the Homo lineage, HAR2 development of the opposable thumb

CpG dinucleotides mutate roughly 10 times more often than the average nucleotide in the genome

Common Ancestor of mtDNA types existed 140,000 " 290 000 years ago, mtMRCA is the direct matrilineal ancestor of all living humans. Other women would have lived at the same time and passed nuclear genes down but their mitochondrial lineages were lost over time.

Modern Human mtDNA has an African Origan

Y chromosome 70,000 years ago originated in Africa

Neolithic farming revolution provided enough mutations to accelerate genetic change. Infectious diseases were another consequence of the early urban populations and a new source of selection pressures. The origins of many recently adapted genes have now been traced to this period, creating effects such as regional difference in skin colour and skeletal gracility. Adaptions cause less muscle strength and more intelligence. Less aggressive human behaviours by 5000 years ago. Asaptive alleles were coming into existence at a rate about 100 times faster during the Pleistocene period.
Experts can easily determine race from skeletal evidence alone

Alongside fossil and archaeological finds, genetic studies show that the different groups of people in the world today all originated in Africa. Our species, Homo sapiens, began to evolve there about 400,000 years ago. By 150,000 years ago some African fossils show clear modern human features. Around 60,000 years ago, the first small groups of modern humans left Africa and began to disperse through Asia all the way to Australia, and also into Europe.
Mitochondrial DNA is found in tiny structures (mitochondria) in our cells that convert energy from food into a form cells can use. Passed from mother to child. Reveals information about your maternal lineage and where your mother's female ancestors may have lived.

Y chromosome DNA is contained in a sex-determining chromosome only found in the cells of men. (men only) Passed from father to son. Reveals information about your paternal lineage and where your father's male ancestors may have lived.
Nuclear DNA is packaged in 23 pairs of chromosomes in the nucleus of each human cell. One of each pair is inherited from the mother, the other from the father. Inherited from both parents. Reveals information about your ethnic ancestry and the percentage of any DNA inherited from Neanderthals or other extinct human species.

Genetic markers are specific DNA sequences whose location on the chromosome is known

Researchers compare thousands of genetic markers within a person's DNA with those of other people across the world. The similarities and differences allow scientists to reconstruct population histories and estimate where our ancestors lived at certain times in the past.

As well as providing information about ethnic ancestry, Nuclear DNA reveals episodes of interbreeding between modern humans and other human species. DNA research reveals the genetic legacy some of us have inherited from our extinct cousins, the Neanderthals. When modern humans left Africa, they interbred with Neanderthal populations. This probably occurred in western Asia, and perhaps also elsewhere. These events mean that non-African people today share around two per cent of their DNA with Neanderthals.

The studies compared the genome of a Neanderthal with those of hundreds of modern humans, both from Eurasia, where our ancestors met Neanderthals, and from sub-Saharan Africa, where there would have been no interbreeding.
However, Neanderthal DNA was also found in parts of the human genome associated with diseases such as diabetes, lupus, biliary cirrhosis and Crohn"s disease, which causes inflammation of the gut.

Domestication of animals evolved differ species
Gray wolf (Canis lupus) to Dog (Canis lupus familiaris)
Mouflon (Ovis orientalis) to a Sheep (Ovis aries)
Look up every single species and find out how they evolved, I hope you will learn from this debate.


BIGATHEKEKKER forfeited this round.
Debate Round No. 3
5 comments have been posted on this debate. Showing 1 through 5 records.
Posted by Sommerville 3 years ago
Dragonfang commented //The controversy is about evolutionary mechanisms being able to bring multicellularity from unicellular life, be responsible for about 100% of the diversity of life and species, invent and assemble complex bio-mechanical organs and biological systems, bring consciousness and intelligence, all from the ancestors of a hypothetical proto-cell in gradual steps randomly.//

I wouldn't use the words invent or assemble. That is like saying there was a plan to create an eye and evolution put or the pieces together over time. Should say "how could evolution evolve organs and biological systems ". Really do you not research this argument your using ignorance fallacy

" A long-standing challenge to evolutionary theory has been whether it can explain the origin of complex organismal features. We examined this issue using digital organisms -- computer programs that self-replicate, mutate, compete and evolve. Populations of digital organisms often evolved the ability to perform complex logic functions requiring the coordinated execution of many genomic instructions. Complex functions evolved by building on simpler functions that had evolved earlier, provided that these were also selectively favoured. However, no particular intermediate stage was essential for evolving complex functions. The first genotypes able to perform complex functions differed from their non-performing parents by only one or two mutations, but differed from the ancestor by many mutations that were also crucial to the new functions. In some cases, mutations that were deleterious when they appeared served as stepping-stones in the evolution of complex features. These findings show how complex functions can originate by random mutation and natural selection." Sourced from
Posted by Dragonfang 3 years ago
That is not controversial; "Parents are different than children" and "Species are more suited for survival in some environments over others" has been cited multiple times by multiple people since the times of ancient Greeks.

The controversy is about evolutionary mechanisms being able to bring multicellularity from unicellular life, be responsible for about 100% of the diversity of life and species, invent and assemble complex bio-mechanical organs and biological systems, bring consciousness and intelligence, all from the ancestors of a hypothetical proto-cell in gradual steps randomly.
Posted by Secular_Mike 3 years ago
You are very mistaken emilrose. Here hope this helps
Posted by Emilrose 3 years ago
Of course it's a scientific theory. "Theory" being the key word.

There's two main flaws within your argument. 1.) The fact you have not provided definitions (2.) The fact you state that evolution is observed every day.

Micro evolution has been observed; which is small changes in a species. Macro evolution has never been conclusively proven.
Posted by Atheist-Independent 3 years ago
In science, nothing can ever be considered true or fact, no matter how much evidence there is. Therefore evolution remains a theory, however it is important to note that theories in science are the closest thing to fact that there is.
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