The Instigator
samcarson1
Pro (for)
Winning
4 Points
The Contender
sheisahmad1
Con (against)
Losing
0 Points

Cloning Body Parts (Therapeutic Cloning)

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Voting Style: Open Point System: 7 Point
Started: 1/10/2011 Category: Technology
Updated: 6 years ago Status: Voting Period
Viewed: 6,140 times Debate No: 14342
Debate Rounds (5)
Comments (1)
Votes (1)

 

samcarson1

Pro

Ethical Question: Should people be able to clone body parts?

Definition: The cloning of body parts is often called therapeutic cloning. Therapeutic cloning is the use of cloning to produce new body tissues from stem cells, for use in the treatment of disease or injury.

Arguments:

1.) Transplant availability is one of the benfits that therapeutic cloning could bring. Organs are often in short supply causing unfortunate situations where hospitals need to pick and choose which patients need them the most. This, sadly, leads to many patients dying on the waiting list. With therapeutic cloning organs would not have to be in short supply. About eighteen people die each day waiting for a transplant. This technology would not only provide a new organ but also one that is completely compatible with the recipient.

2.) This brings me to my next point: the elimination of organ rejection. One of the biggest problems with organ transplants is the body's refusal to accept a foreign organ into the body. Often, recipients die because the body's immune system attacks the organ. For example there is only a 58.9% probability for a kidney recipient to survive ten more years. Therapeutic cloningwould enable the creation of an identical organ, that would be accepted into the body because it is the same as the original.

3.) One might think that if the organ needed to be cloned for a transplant has a defect that would pose a problem. However, the organs could be improved and modifed solving issues like diabetes, heart disease, etc. Therapeutic cloning would prove very benificial to treating many diseases that plague the lives of thousands of people.

4.) People could also have organs on standby for when they need them. When their organs fail they will not have to wait for a transplant to ship to the hospital or to grow a new organ. Therapeutic cloning would offer many ways to increase the longevity of life.
sheisahmad1

Con


Ethical Question: Is therapeutic cloning ethical?
Definition: Therapeutic cloning is the cloning of stem cells to produce a cloned organ vital for living.
First off, thank you for challenging us to a debate on the topic of therapeutic cloning. Here are our arguments for round 1.
Playing God/Individual Rights
If a clone wants to donate an organ it is entirely up to the clone, not the creator. It is similar to becoming impregnated and then selling the baby to science for dissection. Cloning people for various tasks originally relegated to the clonee is not unlike slavery in that the clone is given no consideration as to what its wants and desires are. As a society, people should feel ashamed to have put forth the proposition of creating slaves; how is a clone’s rights and privileges any different from the original person’s? Clones should not be considered to be of a lower standard than naturally conceived humans are.
Eugenics is, in a nutshell, attempting to manipulate offspring by examining the genes of its parents. As an example, when a woman goes to the sperm bank for a donor, she is given the statistics of each donor’s abilities, including standardized intelligence, strength,
mechanical comprehension, and what job they held when they donated. If a woman wants her child to be smart, she merely has to (hypothetically) choose a donor that is exceptionally intelligent, and hope that his DNA takes effect in the growing fetus. When applied to cloning, it is already known that we can clone, and that we can splice DNA. It is a small step from those being individual sciences to using them in a combined effort to create a "super-human." In effect, as it has already been hypothesized, many world leaders will probably create an entire race of identical super-humans in an attempt to better their armies and instill fear in the rest of humanity. A prophesized eugenics war
could take place in the near future, maybe 10-50 years from now, in which no humans will be involved, except as prisoners or hostages. To recap, cloning’s benefits by no means justify the grave risks associated by the pursuit of this science, as it will likely end humanity’s term of ruling this planet.
Technology Not Controlled
Stability of stem cells: As of 2003-MAR, therapeutic cloning is still in its early stages of development. Stem cells have sometimes mutated, and thus been rejected by the recipient's body. In other cases, at least with experiments on animals, they have produced tumors. It is obvious that therapeutic cloning will not be feasible until these deficiencies have been overcome but even then would be unethical.
Extracting eggs from women is "painful, costly and unreliable." 7 Focus on the Family, a Fundamentalist Christian group, cited an unknown expert who has said that the process of harvesting eggs would seriously injure about one percent of all female donors. 8 We have been unable to determine what form this injury might take. Assuming two dozen eggs per woman, this would still require over a half million women willing to donate eggs and run the risk of some type of injury. Therapeutic cloning will probably only become generally useful when a method is found to use non-human eggs as source material. Research is underway to use rabbit eggs. During the process, "the embryo will lose all traces of its rabbit origin." 7
The stem cells are then removed from the resulting embryo. In theory, these stem cells can be prompted to become any type of cell, though the methodology for achieving this is still largely unknown. He went on to say that it was 'clearly risky to continue to rely on the inefficiency of cloning as the main barrier to it being done'. He stressed that reproductive cloning was likely to have terrible consequences, judging from the results of animal cloning experiments.
Developing cures: Methods have to be developed that will cure or treat diseases with embryonic stem cells. This looks promising. Research with adult stem cells, which has been underway for many years, have shown great promise. Unfortunately, adult cells are limited in their application. Research using therapeutic cloning is a new field, but it has already shown that stem cells from embryos have much greater flexibility than adult stem cells and thus have a lower success rate and are usually rejected by the human body.
The scientific limitations are that the number of embryos successfully created in this fashion is very low, sometimes as few as one or two out of every 100 attempts.
http://scienceray.com...
Unless or until this success rate can be improved, it makes the widespread use of embryonic stems cells for medical purposes unlikely.

Cost/Black Market Organs
As of right now, the cost of cloning is undeniably expensive. The cloning of Dolly the sheep cost over 5 million dollars alone. With humans, a more complex organism, it is estimated for the cloning of a human to cost over 50 million dollars when considering all the research, test trials, and services (btech.net). To break this down into the cloning of stem cells, it has been projected that millions of dollars would still be the cost to such a service.
When we look at the cost of such a service, we must think to ourselves, “Would everyone have a fair opportunity for this service.” The answer is NO. The cost would be a service for the wealthy. This is another classic example of “the rich get richer and the poor get poorer.” The only difference is that rich in this case refers to a better chance at a better life.
Cost isn’t always monetary. Cost can also be the emotional strain that it puts on families. Imagine Little Johnny, a sick little boy, w
Debate Round No. 1
samcarson1

Pro

Ethical Question: Is therapeutic cloning ethical

As far as the section about playing God, you have solely mentioned cloning whole humans and the rights of entire human clones. These topics are moot to therapeutic cloning as it pertains to the cloning of tissues and organs, not entire humans. Organs cannot be enslaved nor do they have individual rights. The hypothetical, apocalyptic scene you have painted is not even germane to the topic.

Furthermore, as you said the technology of therapeutic cloning is still in its early stages. It would be foolish to make many rash assumptions as to where the technology will lead. Also, since it is still being developed the use of adult stem cells and animal ovum still has great potential. Dolly, an entire animal, was cloned with an adult stem cell. Curing diseases, creating organs, and growing tissues are the main purposes of therapeutic cloning. Adult stem cells are perfectly capable of accomplishing these goals and no doubt with time the procedures will be more successful, eliminating the need for human embryonic stem cells. However to address the point posed to the danger of extracting eggs from women anyway, the procedure is voluntary. Nobody is forcibly extracting eggs from their ovaries, and there is risk for complications often including death in every surgery. These factors are not exclusive to this procedure.

Pertaining to the cost of the technology, you have referenced an estimated cost for cloning an entire human rather than a mere portion of one. That figure would be grossly disproportionate to the cost of cloning a kidney for instance. Also with the new health care reform, the procedures would no doubt become far more affordable to patients and as a new technology it is is still unrefined. With time it will no doubt become more efficient and cost-effective with time, making therapeutic cloning readily available to significantly more people.
sheisahmad1

Con

sheisahmad1 forfeited this round.
Debate Round No. 2
samcarson1

Pro

samcarson1 forfeited this round.
sheisahmad1

Con

sheisahmad1 forfeited this round.
Debate Round No. 3
samcarson1

Pro

samcarson1 forfeited this round.
sheisahmad1

Con

sheisahmad1 forfeited this round.
Debate Round No. 4
samcarson1

Pro

samcarson1 forfeited this round.
sheisahmad1

Con

sheisahmad1 forfeited this round.
Debate Round No. 5
1 comment has been posted on this debate.
Posted by Salamandarzu 6 years ago
Salamandarzu
Aww, too bad. I was looking forward to learning about this debate.
1 votes has been placed for this debate.
Vote Placed by Cliff.Stamp 6 years ago
Cliff.Stamp
samcarson1sheisahmad1Tied
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Total points awarded:40 
Reasons for voting decision: Pro's arguments left unanswered, and Con forfeits.