Developmental aid should be prioritized over military aid in the sahel region of Africa
Debate Rounds (4)
First, that military assistance to Africa increases exploitation and abuse. Military assistance from other countries to Africa has a history of increasing abuse by training the people causing the problem. The Open Society Justice Initiative in 2012 reports that counterterrorism efforts authorized and aided by the UN after the July 2010 World Cup Bombing in Uganda led to human rights abuses against the supposed terrorists including denial of due process rights, physical abuse, arbitrary detentions, and unlawful renditions. Along with the U.N. military aid that lead to abuses, the United States has a track record of training militants that go against their cause. The Washington Post reports in May 2013 that a U.N. report found that the 391st Congolese army battalion that received military training from the United States went on to commit mass rapes and other atrocities in 2012. The United State"s goal in the Congo was to professionalize their "ragtag" military, and in the end they only made the human rights abuses worse as they provided them the tools and expertise to commit them. Additionally, in Craig Whitlock of the Washington Post in 2012 reports that the leader of a Mali coup that disrupted democratic elections was professionally trained by the United States. Because of this coup the United States military was required to suspend relations with Mali. On top of this, a report from Oendrila Dube from Columbia University analyzed political violence data and found that United States military assistance throughout the world increased attacks by paramilitaries especially during election years. The report also found that foreign military assistances strengthens armed non-state actors. These incidents and reports show that as a whole, U.S. military aid is not effective and in fact counterproductive as it increases militant"s ability to create rights abuses.
Second, development aid is greatly beneficial to the African Sahel region"s agriculture. Martin Ravallion and Shaohua Chen, economics professors at Georgetown University reported in 2008 that sub-Saharan Africa has the lowest agricultural productivity in the world and the highest percentage of people living in poverty. Stephen Cockburn of Oxfam International reported in May 2012 that there is a food crisis in Sahel. The country of Mali alone has 3,600,000 people with severely insecure food resources. According to an Oxfam survey in the Sahelian belt of Eastern Chad, 63% of households were unable to cover their food needs after February 2012. Food stocks have already run out in many communities, with an estimated 18.4 million people in nine countries in extreme hunger. Desertification, or land degradation, is a major issue in the Sahel. According to the Economist in December 2010, desertification is often caused by poor farming methods. This includes nomadic behavior and lack of crop rotation, which are prevalent in the Sahel. However, development assistance would help stop these harmful behaviors. Development assistance in agriculture is proactive and long term. Long-term development assistance is sensitive to drought risks and reduces vulnerability by reducing risk factors. An example of this development assistance is the Syngenta Foundation. This organization has partnered with the governments of many Sahel countries, including Mali, to introduce numerous seed varieties and technologies for semi-arid areas. They"ve also set up cooperatives and greatly improved the access of these countries to markets. Farmers in this area are seeing increasing opportunities to become viable commercial partners. This would help stop desertification because farmers would actually be able to become large-scale farmers, rather than just continuing to be subsistence planters. The Syngenta Foundation for Sustainable Agriculture is supporting rice intensification projects in Senegal, Mali, and Burkina Faso, which has made the rice supply chain more efficient and reliable, greatly increased yields, and most importantly will help establish food security in this region. Saving human lives is the most important weight in this round, and development assistance provides the stability people in the Sahel need to survive.
I affirm the resolution on two contentions. One, military assistance to Africa increases exploitation and abuse. Two, development aid is greatly beneficial to the African Sahel region"s agriculture.
Observation 1: Military Aid is needed
The current political instability and corruption in the Sahel region of Africa means that any development assistance would not have the full, if any, effect unless it was backed up by military aid.
Diana L. Ohlbaum Dec 23, 2013 "Think before casting the first stone against corruption" http://csis.org...
A new report from Global Financial Integrity shows that nearly $1 trillion was sapped from the developing [Sahel] world in 2011 through crime, corruption, and tax evasion " a dramatic increase from past years, and more than 10 times the total official development assistance that went in.
Cont. 1: Ensure Security and Fight against Terrorism: (Put for evidence if you don"t feel like this is worth reading)
EU and the US must simultaneously work to instill more efficient methods of preventive diplomacy, conflict prevention, and conflict resolution. Preventive diplomacy will substantially increase the security of the Sahel by providing a channel for peripheral grievances to be heard by the government. With such diplomacy, tensions could be resolved politically without escalating into violence. US and EU intelligence services should better collaborate with their African counterparts, not just reactively but proactively, by identifying and diffusing risks
The EU and the US should facilitate the development of regional and national institutions for conflict prevention by providing better resources, training, and technical support. One method to prevent conflict is to eliminate the funding methods of violent groups, which in the Sahel has been through drug trafficking to Europe. With the EU"s vested interests in the Sahel, financing and implementing methods to disrupt and dispel drug trafficking is crucial. As proven by US influence in Chad, "developing conflict mitigation and community stabilization projects" can be valuable in providing methods to prevent conflict. In addition, institutions managing conflict resolution at the national and regional level are necessary.
Sub point A: Combatting drug trafficking and piracy in Somali (edit if needed)
http://www.nytimes.com... July 31, 2013
To combat piracy and trafficking, the international community should work with the F.B.I., Europol and Interpol to take on the land-based criminal networks that control the pirates by disrupting their money flows. Arresting and prosecuting the leaders and financiers of piracy groups could severely disrupt their businesses. Often the ringleaders who operate these gangs reside outside of Somalia and so have escaped prosecution. A concerted international effort must be made to identify the individuals involved, shut down their operations and bring them to justice.
Sub point B: higher security lowers pirate attacks
The number of hijackings has decreased over the past several years"a situation largely attributed to ramped up security in Somalia. (For 2012 there were 50% lower attacks than in 2007).
Cont 3: Corruption is a threat to security (edit if needed)
Arben Kola Cleveland Financial Fraud Examiner "Corruption is a threat to global security"
Corruption is both a cause of poverty, and a barrier to overcoming it. It is one of the most serious obstacles to reducing poverty. Furthermore, corruption threatens domestic and international security and the sustainability of natural resources. The UN understood the implications of corruption in the world economy and security in 2000. The Convention against Corruption approved by the Ad Hoc Committee was adopted by the General Assembly by its resolution 58/4 of 31 October 2003 and entered into force in December 14, 2005. However, the developed countries need to commit themselves to fighting corruption in order to be successful against money laundering and terrorist financing.
Africa has more than enough military manpower to meet its security needs. The problem is that existing forces are too often corrupt, and ill-trained, rather than to help them. The US can best serve by providing countries with advisory and technical assistance, as well as more international military education and training.
Cont 4: MILITARY AID IS NECESSARY TO DEAL WITH THE RECRUITMENT OF CHILD SOLDIERS
Ban Ki-Moon, (UN Secretary General), REPORT OF THE SECRETARY-GENERAL ON THE SITUATION IN MALI, Mar. 24, 2013. Retrieved Dec. 3, 2013 from http://www.un.org... view_doc.asp?symbol=S/2013/189.
Information was received by the UN concerning grave violations against children committed by parties in the north, including incidents of recruitment and use of children by armed forces, sexual violence against girls, forced marriages, abductions and attacks on schools and hospitals. Hundreds of children have been recruited by all of the armed groups active in the north, including Al-Qaida in the Islamic Maghreb, Ansar Dine, the Movement for Unity and Jihad in West Africa and the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad. The capture and detention of children for intelligence purposes is also an emerging trend that needs to be addressed as a matter of the utmost urgency.
Cont. 5: Africa's Crumbling Center
The US, along with the EU, should move quickly to provide the necessary financial support to secure Kenya.
At the same time, Africa"s leaders must provide more support to the African Union. Stabilizing the Central African Republic will require a doubling of the proposed 3,600 Misca troops. Securing the capital will only be a beginning: This mission should also safeguard main roads, starting with the major commercial artery running from Bangui to Garoua-Boula", at the Cameroonian border. This would both stabilize the Central African Republic and reduce the very real threat of violence spreading to its neighbors.
The Security Council has a precious opportunity to restore security. Without this, the task of implementing the transitional political road map cannot begin, there will be no reforms, elections expected in early 2016 will be difficult to convene, and the transition may stall and even collapse with only one result: civil war with unspeakable consequences for Africa"s volatile center.
Ik we debated already but I spelled prioritize wrong so people will not see our debate. I want to get peoples opinions on comments so I can learn what judges will like and what they will not like about arguments/case.
I just debated moneystacker on this same subject, and same sides and I am sorry, but I would like to find new opponents to widen my spectrum of debates, I would be fine arguing against moneystacker again, other than the fact that he is using the exact same case against me as he did in the previous debate.
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