1. Burden of proof- Let's start with the obvious argument my opponent will have to address. Where is God? Why can't we see God? Why does he not reveal himself in the age of cameras? What does the Christian God have against gays? Alright, now I know what my opponent might say to counter these assertions, but I will leave my counter argument hear. If my opponent tries to claim that there is intelligent design, and the universe originated from a designer; who created the designer. Who created God? My opponent can say that God had no creator, but this would be false, because there is already a logic here that one must follow. The logic is that everything created must have a designer. Than the designer must have been created? The logic would have to stay consistent.
2. Representation- For an intelligent designer, he is quite pathetic at getting the message across that he himself is the all powerful God.
Clockwise from the North Pole, they are: Baha'i, Buddhism, Christianity, Confucianism, Hinduism, Islam, Jainism, Judaism, Shinto, Sikhism, Taoism, Wicca and some other Neopagan religions, Zoroastrianism, and Druidism.
Christianity- 2 billion people
Islam- 1.2 billion people
Hinduism- 900 million people
Buddhism- 350 million people
Sikhism- 25 million people
Juche- 24 million people
Judaism- 14.6 million people
Baha'ism-7 million people
Jainism - 5 million people
Shintoism-4 million people
My opponent could say that this links to an intelligent designer. It doesn't. Many of these religions listed are polytheistic.
I thank Con for posting their arguments in R2.
I. GOD EXISTS
1) KALAM COSMOLOGICAL ARGUMENT (KCA)
P1: Everything that begins to exist necessarily has a cause.
P2: The universe began to exist.
C: The universe necessarily has a cause.
Nothing comes into existence from nothing without a cause. It is completely unreasonable & nonsense to claim otherwise.
1. It is well-known that the Big Bang Theory suggests that the universe has a beginning.
2. The laws of thermodynamics suggest that the universe has a beginning.
According to laws of thermodynamics, heat always transfers from hotter regions towards cooler regions until all regions have the same temperature. Since there are regions that are cooler than other regions, like stars & galaxies, then the universe didn’t exist for sufficient time for all regions to have the same temperature. Therefore, the universe has a beginning.
Since P1 & P2 are true, then it necessary follows that the universe has a cause.
2) FINE TUNING & DESIGN ARGUMENT
P1: Precise compatibilities between two things imply a common design.
P2: A design requires a common intelligent designer.
P3: Millions of things/events in the universe are precisely compatible with each other (directly or indirectly).
C: There necessarily exists a common intelligent designer (follows from 1, 2, & 3).
E.g., precise compatibilities of each part of a mechanical watch imply that they are designed as such. It is impossible that those parts were arbitrarily & coincidentally made due to insignificant probability of such an event. Even if each part was DESIGNED by a different individual that was unaware of what others were doing, it would still be impossible that those parts were compatible with each other to make a working watch. Therefore, precise compatibilities of different things with each other imply a common design.
Nothing designed, e.g., parts of a mechanical watch, can be without a common intelligent designer. By causality principle nothing can be without a cause. & nothing that has precise compatibilities with some other things (i.e., designed) can be the result of blind coincidences, chances or chaos. Is it at all possible that tens, hundreds, or even millions of precise compatibilities were the result of blind coincidences, chances or chaos? How?
Everything in the universe, including the laws & constants, esp. cosmological constant, are finely tuned & are very compatible with each other to make the current universe & life possible to exist. If they were slightly different, then it wouldn’t be possible for the current universe & life to exist. Everything being so compatible with each other from among billions of other possibilities each with comparable probabilities imply that they are not the result of coincidences or chances.
For example, imagine only some events after sun’s formation:
-formation of Earth,
-Earth having a particular magnetic field,
-Earth’s distance from the sun,
-its mass & orbit & orbital speed,
-Earth’s rotational speed & inclination of its rotational axis,
-formation of the moon,
-formation of atmosphere,
All of these could be completely differently. But if ANY of them was slightly different, then there wouldn’t be these many life-forms on Earth.
Even the living things are precisely compatible & dependent on each other (directly or indirectly). For example, the existence of almost all living things has precise dependencies on atmospheric properties. The current atmospheric properties have precise dependencies on phytoplanktons’ characteristics, abundance etc. So, almost all living things’ existence indirectly depends on phytoplanktons…
Is it possible that all of these precise compatibilities of these events & beings were the results of blind coincidences, chances & chaos? One has to “turn-off” his/her mind & logic to be able to accept such a claim.
Billions of such things/events are already examined & precise compatibilities are observed such as those mentioned above.
Since P1, P2 & P3 are shown to be true then, by deduction, it follows that there necessarily exists a common intelligent designer. We call this common intelligent designer as God.
II. GOD (from DESIGN & KCA above) IS;
Think about beginning (to exist) of the universe. There necessarily exists a cause (C1) for its beginning. There necessarily exists another cause (C2) for C1. … There necessarily exists another cause (Ci) for C(i-1). There are only two options (it is either finite (a) or infinite (b)) for this chain of causes:
a) This chain stops in Ci if and only if (iff) Ci doesn’t need another cause to exist, i.e., iff Ci is uncaused.
b) Otherwise this chain goes to (actual) infinity.
If we show that option b is impossible, then option a is necessarily true.
Let's assume that option b is the case. This means that there is a chain of total of infinite causes (Inf.(T)) before our universe begins, i.e., it goes "back" forever & never reaches a beginning point.
Since infinity = infinity/2 + infinity/2 & infinity/2 = infinity, then imagine a point that separates the chain of causes of our universe into two parts where there are infinite number of causes between this point & our universe (Inf. (1)) & the rest of infinite number of causes before this point (Inf.(2)). So, we have
Inf. (T) = Inf. (1) + Inf. (2).
There are still infinitely many causes prior to this point & infinitely many causes after this point until the beginning of our universe.
Since such an imaginary point exists on the chain of infinitely many causes of our universe, then our universe waited for infinitely many causes to happen before it began to exist.
What does "waiting for infinitely many causes to happen" mean?
It literally means "waiting forever" which literally means "not stopping waiting forever" which literally means "NEVER stopping waiting".. This literally implies that in such a case "our universe waited forever before beginning to exist" which implies "our universe NEVER stopped waiting before it began to exist" which literally means "our universe is still waiting before beginning to exist" which literally means "our universe has not began to exist yet" which literally means "our universe doesn’t exist yet".
This (i.e., option b above) is a clear contradiction to reality... since our universe DOES exist.
Therefore, option b is not the case!!!
=> Since option b is impossible, then option a must be true.
Since option a is true, then there necessarily exists a cause Ci which has no beginning / is uncaused.
1. Since the universe has a beginning, then it necessarily has a cause.
2. If the cause of our universe began to exist, then it necessarily has another cause. Similarly, that cause has another cause etc..
3. Since the chain of causes in (2) cannot go to infinity as shown above, then there is necessarily a beginning of those causes, i.e., there necessarily exists an initial cause (Ci) which hasn't began to exist, i.e., doesn't have a beginning, i.e., always existed, i.e., is eternal, i.e., is uncaused (i.e., Ci in option a).
We call/name/define this uncaused initial cause as God. If one asks what caused God to exist, then the answer is that He is necessarily UCAUSED, as demonstrated above.
Imagine a moving train with 80 wagons.
- Since 80th wagon is moving, then what is pulling it (pulling is the type of cause in this case)?
- 79th wagon!
- What about 79th wagon?
- 78th wagon!
- What about 1st wagon?
- What is pulling the locomotive?
- What?! The locomotive doesn’t need to be pulled by something else in order to move. It is able to move without being pulled (unlike other wagons it has an engine).
If there are moving wagons (i.e., a train), then there necessarily exists something that, unlike other wagons, doesn’t need ANYTHING ELSE to pull it & it has the ability to move itself & all other wagons, i.e., locomotive. It is so, because infinite number of moving wagons, each of which requires something else to pull it, is physically impossible & logically absurd.
Similarly, for an existing universe (including all causes until the initial cause), where everything in it has a beginning, there necessarily exists an uncaused initial cause that has the ability to create something from nothing. We call this uncaused initial cause as the Creator of the universe or the God.
2) SUPERNATURAL, INVISIBLE, & THE SUPREME BEING
i) Since He "existed before” & is above space-time universe (i.e., nature), then He is supernatural.
ii) We humans can only see matter & energy (i.e., light). Since God is the creator of matter & energy, then it is nonsensical to think that He is also made up of matter & energy. Since He is not made up of matter & energy, then He is invisible to us.
iii) Since God is the Creator & the Ruler of the universe (i.e., everything known), then by definition He is the Supreme Being.
1) & 2) above are added due to Con putting “obvious” words in my mouth in R2.
3) THE CREATOR
Since He is the cause of the universe’s coming into existence, then He is the Creator of the universe, by definition.
4) THE RULER
There are laws in the universe (laws of nature/physics) that everything obeys them, i.e., they are ruling the universe. These laws are created within the universe & are a part of it. Since they are a part of the universe, then they must be created by the same cause we deduced from Design & KCA. Then, we conclude that this cause is constantly ruling the universe through these laws of the universe.
Therefore, consequently, God is the Ruler of the universe.
Rebuttals to Con’s cases in R2 will be provided in R3, as per conditions set.
I look forward to Con’s rebuttals (only) & wish them best of luck!