The Instigator
Juan_Pablo
Pro (for)
Winning
10 Points
The Contender
JoJoju1998
Con (against)
Losing
0 Points

Global Warming is Real and is Manmade!

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Post Voting Period
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after 2 votes the winner is...
Juan_Pablo
Voting Style: Open Point System: 7 Point
Started: 5/8/2014 Category: Science
Updated: 3 years ago Status: Post Voting Period
Viewed: 3,750 times Debate No: 54288
Debate Rounds (4)
Comments (28)
Votes (2)

 

Juan_Pablo

Pro

Global Warming is real and is manmade! Over the last decades, Earth scientists around the world have evaluated pools of atmospheric, geographic, and oceanic data to reach the same conclusion: the Earth's surface is getting warmer. Besides registering a constant increase in the Earth's average surface temperature decade after decade, scientists also show that the world's sea levels are rising 3.16 mm per year--(and have risen a total of 8 inches over the last century!)--as a result, a situation which will cause more dry land to be lost to the ocean as time passes [1].

The Earth's warming trend is causing artic sea ice to disappear at a rate of 11.5% per decade. In 1996 satellite observations showed that there was 79 million square kilometers of sea ice in the Artic Ocean in the month of September (the warmest month at the Artic pole); in September of 2012, satellite observations recorded the lowest quantity of Artic sea ice on record--a dismal 3.61 million square kilometers, less than half of what was recorded in 1996 [1]. The year-to-year trends show some oscillation, but the general trend shows a gradual decline in artic sea ice.

Global warming is also causing dry land ice to disappear. NASA's Grace satellites "show that the land ice sheets in both Antarctica and Greenland are losing mass. The continent of Antarctica has been losing more than 100 cubic kilometers (24 cubic miles) of ice per year since 2002" [1]. Alarmingly, satellite imagery shows colossal chunks of Antartica falling into the ocean, and monumental glaciers evaporating over the course of a mere decade!

Most shocking of all, Earth scientists warn that the trend is getting worse! From 1870 to 2000, for example, (since scientists have been recording measurements) oceanic sea levels rose on average 1.7 mm per year; from 1993 to present, oceanic sea levels have risen 3.16 mm per year--nearly double the average over the last century [1]!

And what is responsible? What is the culprit in this Earth-transforming trend? Though natural events like erupting volcanoes and biological respiration can be shown to contribute to global warming, scientists are now 90% certain that the increase in atmospheric temperatures is caused by exploding concentrations of green house gases caused by human activity [2]. Volcanoes and biological respiration release green house gas (in the form of carbon dioxide) into the atmosphere. However, concensus in the scientific community is that land and submarine volcanoes release (at maximum) approximately 1% of all the CO2 emitted by humans in the course of a year [3]. The Burning of fossil fuels, such as coal and gasoline, large-scale deforestation, and the emission of methane by ammonia-based fertilizers (used in human agriculture) contribute primarily to the Earth's worsening warming trend. By and large, measurements show that CO2 is the primary culprit in manmade global warming.

Nature uses green house gases to facilitate heat trapping from the sun's rays to warm the Earth and make biological life on the planet possible. But if the concentrations of green house gases in the atmosphere become excessive, this can overheat the planet, alter the Earth's climate system, injure natural ecosystems, and make it harder for biological processes to take place and be maintained. Largely because of the industrial revolution, CO2 levels are at the highest they've ever been in the last 400,000 years--and they continue to climb. Research using ice cores shows that the atmospheric concentration of CO2 is now 33% higher today than it has ever been in the last half million years [1]. The concentration is almost double today than the average over the last 400,000 years--and it continues to get worse [1].


Purpose


In this debate I will argue that Global Warming is real and that humans have contributed to it significantly--if not almost entirely. My opponent will argue that global warming is either (1) false, or (2) real but not manmade. He will support his position with evidence, reliable sources, and try to descredit my arguments.

He should begin his arguments in ROUND 1.

Good luck!

(My purpose with this debate is to educate the debaters and readers alike about the critical topical of global warming.)


[1] (http://climate.nasa.gov...)
[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org...)
[3] (http://volcanoes.usgs.gov...)
JoJoju1998

Con

I disagree with my opponent's assertion. The following information will prove that global warming is a false theory.

1. The 20th century warming of 1-1.4"F is within the +/- 5"F range of the past 3,000 years. A 2003 study by researchers at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics shows temperatures from 1000-1100 AD (before fossil fuel use) that are comparable to those from 1900-1990.

2. Rising CO2 levels are a result of global warming, not a cause of it. As temperatures increase, CO2 is released from "carbon sinks" such as the oceans or the Arctic tundra. Measurements of ice core samples show that over the last four climactic cycles (past 240,000 years) periods of global warming preceded global increases in CO2.

3. The increased hurricane activity over the past decade (1995-2005), including hurricane Katrina, is not the result of human-induced climate change; it is the result of cyclical tropical cyclone patterns, driven primarily by natural ocean currents, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) testimony in the US Senate on Sep. 20, 2005.

4. The general consensus that the earth has warmed during the 20th century is based upon flawed temperature measurements. These measurements, taken from surface monitoring stations set up by the National Weather Service (NWS), are often contaminated by the "heat island effect." According to a Mar. 2009 study published by the Heartland Institute, 89% of NWS monitoring stations are too close to artificial heat sources such as large asphalt parking lots, air conditioners, heaters and other sources of artificial heat.

5. Theories of naturally caused climate change are often ignored by "mainstream" scientists and organizations because many research scientists are more interested in maintainining the flow of federal grant money for climate change research than in questioning the basic theory of human causation. From 1998-2009, nearly $25 billion in federal funds was allocated for climate science research. Researchers who question human-induced climate change often do not receive grant money for research projects.

Your turn.

Sources:
1. Arthur B. Robinson, PhD, et al., "Environmental Effects of Increased Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide" (3 MB) , Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons, Fall 2007
2. Willie Soon, PhD, and Sallie Baliunas, PhD, "Proxy Climatic and Environmental Changes of the Past 1000 Years" (660 KB) , Climate Research, 2003
3. Anders Moberg, PhD, et al., "Highly Variable Northern Hemisphere Temperatures Reconstructed From Low and High Resolution Proxy Data," Nature, Feb. 2005

I will have a more complete source list in the comments section.
Debate Round No. 1
Juan_Pablo

Pro

In ROUND 1 my opponent provides us with numerous sources (primarily a list of doctors and Ph.D's with apparent expertise on the subject) that discredit the claim that global warming is happening or that it is a human created phenomenon. If we pay close attention to what these sources are saying, we'll find that they're actually arguing two different, incompatable things--revealing that my opponent isn't solidly defending exactly where elevations in surface temperature are coming from. One of his sources asserts that the gradual increase in the Earth's surface temperatures can be hocked up to "flawed temperature measurements", because of expanding cities and urban development, which traps heat; hence recordings that show an elevation in Earth's surface temperature over the years are actually showing spikes in artificial heat caused by expanding city development.

His other sources argue that global warming is a natural phenomona and that the measurements of gradually rising temperatures are authentic but should be attributed to natural long-term climate patterns on Earth. From these two positions we see that my opponent is arguing that global warming is either (1) not happening, or (2) happening but not human created.

In this debate I will demonstrate why the third option--global warming is happening and is manmade--is the best, most credible point-of-view, particularly in light of the multitude of scientific data [1].


The Overwhelming Majority of Climate Scientists and Climate Experts Say Global Warming is Real, Manmade


In ROUND 1 my opponent cites an impressive but brief list of "experts" that claim global warming is either not real or isn't human facilitated. Here he's using the fallacy of appeal to authority to sell us his position, particularly since he's not posting any solid data (only assertions) to back up his claims. How can I possibly defend myself against his impressive (but brief) list of experts? Simple. By posting an even larger list of climate scientists and climate experts that hold the opposing view. Of course if I did only this I would be commiting the same fallacy. So I must also provide data and solid evidence to demostrate that global warming is both authentic and manmade.

My opponent posted a seemingly impressive list of "experts" to show that there are scientists and capable professionals that oppose the popular view on global warming and climate change. (Some of those "experts" he cites have no qualifications in climatology and meteorology.) So how many authentic climate scientists (the ones that actually do research on this subject) believe in anthropogenic (manmade) global warming? According to the surveys and studies conducted to answer this, virtually all of them do [2][3][4]! The truth is the experts my opponent cites belong to a tiny but vocal minority (the ones that actually do research in this field, I mean).

A study published in 2013 that quantified the scientific concensus on manmade global warming in scientific literature found that an overwhelming 97% of all scientific research studies that investigated the issue in some way agreed with or confirmed anthropogenic global warming [2][3]. The authors that conducted the study meticulously sifted through 12,000 research journals published over the span of decades to reach their findings [2][3]. An independent study published the same year found that 2259 peer-reviewed climate articles authored by 9136 scientists agreed with manmade global warming; only one author out of all the climate articles reviewed in that study rejected anthropogenic global warming [4].

And the world's foremost authorities on climate change--like the UN's International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (NASA GISS), and the Japanese Metereological Agency, to name a few--all insist that global warming is real and manmade [5][6][7]. The UN's International Panel on Climate Change is by far the world's leading authority on climate change; made up of 195 member nations and consisting of 900 contributing scientists that investigate and report on the impact of a warming Earth, the panel is now 95% certain that global temperatures are rising and that humans are at fault [8][5].


Irrefutable Evidence that Global Warming is Authentic and that Humans are to Blame


There is a plethora of unassailable evidence to show that global warming is real. Graphic data provided by the IPCC in one of its climate reports shows that most of the Earth's surface experienced an increase in temperature between 0.2 and 1.0 degree celsius between 1970 and 2004 (some places experienced a greater temperature increase; few places saw a temperature decrease):




North America in particular has seen a dramatic increase in temperature (about 1 degree celsius) between 1955 to 2005, as depicted here (with some locations observing a more severe increase):





To affirm the IPCC's data on the global temperature trend, data from the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (NASA GISS) shows that with comparison to the base year 1945 (taken as the surface temperature average), temperatures have been increasing since 1910, and have been increasing more rapidly over the last 3 decades (see graph directly below) [1]. This data is consistent with other global temperature records provided by the U.S. National Climatic Data Center, the Japanese Metereological Agency and the Met Office Hadley Center [1].


Data from various scientific agencies show that global warming is happening.


Since the base year 1945, the Earth's average surface temperature has risen by
0.56 degrees celsius; since 1910, the Earth's average surface temperature has risen by 1.02 degrees celsius [1]. NASA shows that 2013 was the 7th warmest year on record, with the years 1998, 2002, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2010 only being hotter--and the hottest years being 2010, 2005, 2007 (in that order) [1]. Data shows no reversal in the Earth's average temperature change, toward the 1945 base year average.

The Japanese Metereological Agency shows global warming data almost identical to NASA's:


Temperature records by the Japan Meteorological Agency also show an increase in average surface temperatures.


The NASA website has a lengthy page devoted entirely to the evidence for anthropogenic global warming [1]. Like the IPCC and the Japanese Metereological Agency, the NASA website asserts that global warming is a real phenomenon impacting the globe.

And what evidence is there of this?

A lot.

Satellite data shows that 2012 had the lowest quantity of Artic Sea Ice on record--a shocking 3.62 million square kilometers, or less than 50% of the quantity recorded in 1980 (see graph immediately below) [1]! Since 2012, some of that Artic Sea Ice has returned, but year-to-year oscillation is to be expected.





NASA's Grace satellites "show that the land ice sheets in both Antarctica and Greenland are losing mass. The continent of Antarctica has been losing more than 24 cubic miles of ice per year since 2002" (see graph directly below) [1].





And satellite sea level measurements show oceanic sea levels rising rapidly--with the trend accelerating in the last two decades. Data from NASA missions Jason-1, Jason-2/OSTM shows oceanic sea levels rising on average 3.16 mm per year from 1993 to 2013; this is nearly twice the oceanic sea level increase from 1870 to 2000 (see graph immediately below) [1].


Global warming is causing sea levels to rise.


NASA points out that increasing sea levels is caused by two factors: "the added water coming from the melting of land ice, and the expansion of sea water as [the Earth] warms" [5]. As you can see, NASA takes the issue of global warming seriously, and the impacting effects of disappearing land and Artic Ice and rising sea levels refute the notion that global warming is only a metropolitan heat Island phenomena--one of the arguments that my opponent makes in ROUND 1.

As data provided by the UN's IPCC, the Japanese Metereological Agency and NASA confirm, global surface temperatures are indeed rising. The 10 warmest years on record have occured in the last 16 years. The warmest year ever directly recorded was 2010--just four years ago [1]. The effects of global warming continue to be felt and show no sign of halting. Sea levels are rising, coastal land is disappearing, polar sea ice is vanishing, land ice is melting.

And the greenhouse gas with the most radiative impact in the atmosphere--CO2--continues to be churned out at crippling levels [1]. Year after year the concentration only increases and the Earth gets hotter [1].

In ROUND 1, my opponent falsely claims that increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are caused by global warming--that they do not contribute to it. These are his exact words:

"Rising CO2 levels are a result of global warming, not a cause of it."

But here he's being blatantly dishonest. It's a well-established scientific fact that carbon dioxide is a heat-trapping greenhouse gas; its heat-trapping effects have been studied in laboratories throughout the world [9].

With the boom of the industrial revolution, which continues to expand into and dominate new countries on a yearly basis, human-induced global warming--through such actions as the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation--has led to an unprecendented increase in CO2 concentrations. Never in the last 400,000 years has the CO2 concentration been quite so high, as the graph below provided by NASA indicates [1].

This is something I will go over in the next ROUND.


CO2 levels are the highest they've ever been in the last 400,000 years!


[1] (http://climate.nasa.gov...)
[2] (http://www.washingtonpost.com...)
[3] (http://iopscience.iop.org...)
[4] (http://www.policymic.com...)
[5] (https://uk.news.yahoo.com...)
[6] (http://www.giss.nasa.gov...)
[7] (http://www.data.kishou.go.jp...)
[8] (http://ipcc.ch...)
[9] (http://en.wikipedia.org...)
JoJoju1998

Con

JoJoju1998 forfeited this round.
Debate Round No. 2
Juan_Pablo

Pro

In ROUND 3 I will continue my ROUND 2 response, where I will show the link between carbon dioxide emitted by human activity and the increase in global surface temperatures. In the final ROUND I will go over the effects of climate change caused by global warming.


Carbon Dioxide (and Other Green House Gases) are Causing Global Warming and Climate Change


With the advent of the industrial revolution, human-induced global warming--through such actions as the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation--has led to an unprecendented increase in CO2 concentrations and other green house gases [1][2]. However, climate scientists overwhelmingly pin the blame of global warming on carbon dioxide because it is the most widely and most abundantly emitted green house gas of human activity [3]. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), carbon dioxide and methane are responsible for more than 84% of the warming being inflicted on our planet because of green house gases [3]. The remaining percent of warming can be attributed to green house gases like nitrous oxide and flourinated gases [3]. By itself, the IPCC has affirmed that carbon dioxide is reponsible for 54.7% of the global warming caused by green house gases; that's because it is the most abundantly produced green house gas of human activity and because it has an enormous radiative impact compared to other green house gases when accounting for its abundance in the atmosphere, its indirect heating effects, and because of the CO2 molecule's long lifetime in the atmosphere [3][4]. In fact, only water vapor has a stronger green house gas effect than carbon dioxide in our atmosphere, but unlike CO2 water vapor isn't being emitted naturally by any known source at a large enough scale to be blamed for global warming [4]; water vapor does contribute to global warming, but this is because of a feedback loop caused as other green house gasses in our atmosphere increase in concentration and heat up the Earth's lower atmosphere [5].

As the Earth's atmosphere and surface become warmer because of green house gas emissions, this drive's more water vapor to be absorbed into the air, further heating our planet; this water vapor loop is well-understood and contributes to anthropogenic (human induced) global warming [5].

However, other green house gases emitted by human activity drive this loop and are primarily responsible for global warming. As the statistic above shows, carbon dioxide is responsible for 54.7% of the warming being inflicted on our planet because of human activity. As I demonstrated with the graph on carbon dioxide concentration in our atmosphere in ROUND 2 (and as I reported in ROUND 1), never in the last 400,000 years has the CO2 concentration been quite so high as it is today! Ice core analysis shows that in the last half-million years the peak concentration (the highest concentration) of CO2 was almost 300 parts per million--and that was 300,000 years ago [1]. Today the concentration of atmospheric CO2 is 398 parts per million! Nearly 33% higher than it has ever been in the last half-million years [1]!

This unprecedented increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide can be attributed almost entirely to human activity, such as through large-scale deforestation, land use changes (such as methane emission from ammonia-based fertilizers), and the burning fossil fuels (which include coal and gasoline) [2]. The IPCC reports that in the last 150 years, human activity has increased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels from 280 parts per million to 398 parts per million today [2]! According to the United States Environment Protection Agency (EPA), humans largely emit carbon dioxide and other green house gases from the production of electricity and from transportation; in the U.S. these two behaviors contribute to 60.8% of all the nation's emitted green house gases in a single year [3]. Other behaviors, such as those of industry, businesses, of agricultural, and of energy use in homes, contribute to the remaining 39% of the nation's green house gas emissions [3].

Global warming is produced when green house gases in the atmosphere--water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide--accumulate in the atmosphere and act as a thermal blanket for the Earth, absorbing the sun's radiative heat and warming the Earth's surface [2]. Nature uses green house gases to facilitate heat trapping from the sun's rays to warm the Earth and make biological life on the planet possible. But if the concentrations of green house gases in the atmosphere become excessive, this can overheat the planet, alter the Earth's climate system, injure natural ecosystems, and make it harder for biological processes to take place and be maintained. This is exactly what's happening now and generating planet-altering climate change (these effects will be explicated in the final ROUND).


Volcanes and Changes in the Sun's Solar Output are Not Contributing to Global Warming


Some skeptics claim that erupting land and submarine volcanoes are causing global warming. But reports by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) shows that volcanoes primarily emit gases, like sulfur dioxide, at high enough concentrations so as to encourage global cooling [6]. In fact, the USGS takes the position that erupting volcanoes typically emit gases that are more likely to lead to global cooling[6]! The USGS asserts that CO2 emission by human activity dwarfs the output of CO2 by all volcanoes worldwide [6].

Some opponents of manmade global warming claim that the Sun's solar output is responsible for the current rise in atmospheric temperatures--that humans are not responsible for the modern warming trend. But this is a view that the scientists firmly dispute, based on a variety of evidence (2):

--Scientists point out that, since 1750, the average amount of energy coming from the sun either remained constant or increased only slightly.

--If the warming were caused by increased radiation coming from the sun, then scientists would expect to see warmer temperatures in all layers of the atmosphere. Instead what they observe is a cooling in the upper atmosphere, and a warming at the surface and in the lower parts of the atmosphere. Scientists say that this is a strong indication that green house gases are responsible for global warming, because they trap heat in the lower atmosphere.

--Computer climate models that include solar irradiance changes can't reproduce the observed temperature trend over the past century or more without including a rise in green house gases.

All of these bits evidence demonstrate that solar irradiance is not responsible for the rise in Earth's surface temperatures over the last century or more.


Elevations in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentrations have been responsible for Prehistoric Rises in Global Surface Temperatures


Scientists that study prehistoric ice ages and warming ages point out that carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere by geologic activity or other natural events has consistently led to warming trends in Earth's history. For example, the Ice Age that stretched during most of the Cryogenian Period (840 - 635 million years ago) had the potential to cover the entire globe and would have been a major setback for biological life and evolution in general had it been this severe. Scientists that study the period point out that this extreme condition never occured because, as the Earth froze, atmospheric oxygen was forced into the oceans, which oxidized organic matter and released CO2 into the atmosphere, preventing temperatures from falling any lower [7]. Presently scientists have no other plausible model to explain how the atmosphere was able to maintain warmth while the Earth froze [7]. Scientists also point out that a rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations have led to prehistoric Warming Ages. 55 million years ago, the Earth entered a sudden and rapid global warming event, which scientists call the the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). Analysis firmly demonstrates that the quantity of carbon and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere rose significantly at the beginning of this period [8] [9]. The increasing concentration of CO2 is considered the chief reason why the atmosphere warmed so rapidly during PETM [8] [9]. Ice core analysis also attributes the end of the last ice age to an increase in atmospheric CO2 levels[10].

That carbon dioxide is a heat-trapping greenhouse gas is sound; its heat-trapping effects have been studied in laboratories throughout the world. Its contribution to prehistoric global warming has long been understood, even before the concept of man-made global warming entered the imagination [11].

JoJoju1998

Con

JoJoju1998 forfeited this round.
Debate Round No. 3
Juan_Pablo

Pro

In this ROUND--the final ROUND--I will explain what it is about carbon dioxide, water vapor, and methane that allow them to be heat-trapping greenhouse gases. I will also briefly explain how global warming facilitates climate change and then go over the various effects of climate change that are occurring because of rising surface temperatures.


Carbon Dioxide (and other Green House Gases) Generate the Greenhouse Effect by Absorbing and Emiting Infrared Radiation (a.k.a. Heat)


Atoms and molecules can absorb electromagnetic radiation, but only at certain energies (wavelengths) [1]. The electromagnetic spectrum is illustrated directly below.


The Electromagnetic Spectrum. Each wavelength is associated with a frequency, which can be acquired from frequency = ( 3.0 x 10^8 meters / second ) / wavelength. (3.0 x 10^8 meters/second is the speed of light in vacuum.) Our human eyes can only detect electromagnetic radiation between 300 and 800 nanometers (1 billion nanometers = 1 meter ); this is called the "visible portion" of the spectrum. Radiation of a different wavelength can also be detected, but by different means.



When the sun emits energy it principally does so in the form of electromagnetic radiation. Our human eyes can only detect radiation between 300 and 800 nanometers in wavelength (1 billion nanometers = 1 meter); this is called the "visible portion" of the spectrum [1]. Radiation of a different wavelength can also be detected, but not visibly by our eyes. Radiation that falls between 700 nanometers to 1 millimeter is infrared radiation, and it can be detected indirectly as heat, or the vibrational-rotational movements of molecules [2]. (Other wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum also contribute to heat.)

Carbon dioxide (illustrated below) is special because it absorbs and emits electromagnetic radiation in the infrared portion of the spectrum [3]; this means that it has an inclination to trap heat radiation coming both from the sun and bouncing off the Earth's surface [1].

"Conjoined-atoms" molecular model of carbon dioxide. (There are various ways to illustrate electronic bonding in a molecule.)


Because CO2 absorbs heat radiation (which is a form of energy), that means the molecule will rotate and vibrate fiercely to contribute to heating (kinetic motion) and the greenhouse gas effect [1]. CO2 absorbs infrared "heat" radiation at 4.26 micrometers and 15.0 micrometer wavelengths; this causes the molecule to vibrate in several possible ways (illustrated directly below) [1].


Vibrational modes of carbon dioxide.



When the molecule absorbs a photon of radiation at 4.26 micrometers wavelength, this causes it stretch either symmetrically (A in the picture above) or asymmetrically (B); when it absorbs a photon of radiation at 15.0 micrometers wavelength, this causes it to undergo one of two bending vibrations (C or D) [1].

It's this molecular phenomena that contributes to the greenhouse gas effect and to gradual global warming, as carbon dioxide and other other green house gases increase in concentration in the atmosphere [1][3]. Water vapor, methane and other greenhouse gases have identical methods of trapping heat [3].


Even though there are a variety of natural "sinks" to take up carbon dioxide and remove it from the atmosphere, the molecule continues to accumulate because of human activity and is forcing the current global warming trend [3][4]. Carbon dioxide is regarded as the fiercest driver of global warming because it is the most emitted green house gas by human activity and because it remains in the atmosphere far longer than the other major global warming gases [4]. Where it takes methane a decade to leave the atmosphere (unfortunately it converts to carbon dioxide), it takes carbon dioxide about a century to exit the atmosphere, though 20% of what is emitted will remain 800 years from now [4]. Water vapor on the other hand only stays in the atmosphere for a couple of days before it falls to Earth; this is why it's rarely discussed as a driver of global warming [4].


The Link Between Global Warming and Climate Change


Rising global temperatures caused by human activity are having a drastic impact on physical and biological processes across the Earth. Besides those effects I went over in ROUND 2, there are numerous other consequences that are occurring as a result of global warming. Increasing global temperatures are causing polar sea ice and worldwide land ice to melt, which is causing oceanic sea levels to rise and coastal land to disappear. But global warming is having other adverse effects on the globe too, which includes alterations to the Earth's climate systems, changes in bird migration, greater intensity in forest fires, and a reduction in local freshwater supplies throughout the planet.

According to two recent independent studies--one conducted by NASA in collaboration with the University of California, Irvine and the other by the University of Washington--the rate of sea level rise is accelerating and the oceanic sea level should be expected to rise by as much as 10 feet within the next two centuries [5]. The reason for the acceleration, the researchers say, is because the West Antarctic ice sheet is melting and it now appears to be unstoppable. The source of the problem is that warmer water (generated by anthropogenic global warming) stirred by Antarctic winds is melting the underside of the ice sheet, which is causing it to retreat and become thinner over time [5]. A 10-foot rise in sea levels would force much of Southern Florida under water (picture below) and it would cause large swathes of New York city's densely populated areas to become swamped [5]; 20 percent of Los Angeles would also find itself under water [6].


Region of Florida forced under water by the melting of the West Antarctic ice sheet.


Just recently, on March 20th, NASA announced that sea level rise is threatening most of its launch pads and multi-billion dollar complexes; currently the space agency is building sea walls and moving some buildings further inland to avoid the rising sea line [7].

As the picture directly below illustrates, global warming is altering physical and biological processes in numerous ways.


How global warming is effecting your world.



Global warming is generating less snow and land ice, which is resulting in a reduced freshwater supply in numerous locations around the world (including the U.S.) [8]; it is also changing rain and snow patterns and resulting in stronger storms [9]. Scientists say this is because storms feed off of latent heat energy; extra heat in the atmosphere or in the oceans (generated by global warming) nourishes storms and strengthens them [9]. There is some speculation that global warming may be decreasing the frequency of storm systems, but there is also strong evidence that storms are becoming more severe and developing more rapidly than just a few decades ago [9][10]. Besides increasing global temperatures, the current manmade warming trend is also resulting in more heat waves, more frequent droughts and intensifying wildfires [11].

Says geoscientist Jonathan Overpeck at the University of Arizona: "The [recent] fires in [Southern] California and here in Arizona are a clear example of what happens as the Earth warms, particularly as the West warms, and the warming caused by humans is making fire season longer and longer with each decade. It's certainly an example of what we'll see more of in the future" [11].

Global warming is also making seas and oceans warmer, damaging natural coral reefs [12], and melting permafrost [13]. As global temperatures rise and the oceans get warmer and become more concentrated in carbon dioxide, natural corals erode which diminishes biodiversity in the planet's oceans; global warming poses a direct threat on the coral reefs surrounding Florida, Puerto Rico, and Hawaii [12].

Global warming and climate change are having a major effect on animal and plant life around the world. Researchers with NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies show that trees are now leafing earlier and that some species are retreating into higher latitudes as the Earth warms [13]. Among the alarming findings [13]: polar bears are seeing their numbers plummet and their sources of food become scare, which is causing them to resort to cannibalism; earlier breeding and migration of birds worldwide; earlier peak migration of Atlantic salmon; earlier spring flight of butterlies and mollusks in California; earlier breakup and later freezing dates in lake and river ice cover; marmots are emerging 38 days earlier in the Rockies; earlier egg-laying of birds; long-term changes within fish communities; earlier pollen release in some plant species; a rapid decline in the Emperor penguin population in Antarctica; long-term decline in krill stock in the Southern Oceans; rising plankton abudance in cooler ocean waters, the opposite in warmer waters.

Global warming and climate change clearly has a large array of effects [13].

The effects on human life are numerous, but global warming is also currently transforming agricultural yields around the world; the picture below illustrates the long-term impact of global warming on agricultural output around the world [14].


Projected impact of climate change on agriculture.




[1] (http://www.wag.caltech.edu...)
[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org...)
[3] (http://en.wikipedia.org...)
[4] (http://www.ucsusa.org...)
[5] (http://www.thestreet.com...)
[6] (http://www.businessinsider.com...)
[7] (http://news.yahoo.com...)
[8] (http://news.mongabay.com...)
[9] (http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov...)
[10] (http://www.accuweather.com...)
[11] (http://news.yahoo.com...)
[12] (http://www.nwf.org...)
[13] (http://www.giss.nasa.gov...)
[14] (http://www.imf.org...)
JoJoju1998

Con

JoJoju1998 forfeited this round.
Debate Round No. 4
28 comments have been posted on this debate. Showing 1 through 10 records.
Posted by sadolite 3 years ago
sadolite
The late Dr. Michael Crichton in a speech at the California Institute of Technology made the following observation:

"I want to "talk about " the rise of what has been called consensus science. I regard consensus science as an extremely pernicious development that ought to be stopped cold in its tracks. Historically, the claim of consensus has been the first refuge of scoundrels; it is a way to avoid debate by claiming that the matter is already settled. "

"Let"s be clear: the work of science has nothing whatever to do with consensus. Consensus is the business of politics. Science, on the contrary, requires only one investigator who happens to be right, which means that he or she has results that are verifiable by reference to the real world. In science consensus is irrelevant. What is relevant is reproducible results " .

"There is no such thing as consensus science. If it"s consensus, it isn"t science. If it"s science, it isn"t consensus. " ." " Consensus is invoked only in situations where the science is not solid enough. Nobody says the consensus of scientists agrees that E = mc". Nobody says the consensus is that the sun is 93 million miles away. It would never occur to anyone to speak that way."
Posted by Juan_Pablo 3 years ago
Juan_Pablo
http://www.barbaraboxer.com...

Sign on to urge U.S. Senators to take action and fight climate change!
Posted by Juan_Pablo 3 years ago
Juan_Pablo
Correction:

"Just recently, on MAY 20th, NASA announced that sea level rise is threatening most of its launch pads and multi-billion dollar complexes..."
Posted by Juan_Pablo 3 years ago
Juan_Pablo
I'm sorry. The Picture in ROUND 4 of the areas to be submerged in Florida show only what a 6-foot rise in sea level would do--not what a 10-foot rise would do.
Posted by Juan_Pablo 3 years ago
Juan_Pablo
My ROUND 4 response is almost done.
Posted by Juan_Pablo 3 years ago
Juan_Pablo
I'm now working on my final ROUND response.
Posted by Juan_Pablo 3 years ago
Juan_Pablo
Oh, sorry. I posted the last comment in the wrong place!
Posted by Juan_Pablo 3 years ago
Juan_Pablo
I still believe we can establish a lasting peace agreement between Israelis and Palestinians, but it may require us to be as firm with Israel and Hamas (and other Palestinian terror groups) as we will undoubtedly have to be with Russia!

There must be consequences for human rights violations and for breaking significant, important international laws!!!
Posted by Juan_Pablo 3 years ago
Juan_Pablo
My final ROUND response will DEFINITELY be up before the time limit is reached!
Posted by Juan_Pablo 3 years ago
Juan_Pablo
According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Climatic Data Center, this past April was the hottest EVER directly recorded since records were first kept (since the 1880s)!

http://www.washingtonpost.com...

Global Warming and Climate Change are real and we have an obligation to deal with this enormous challenge!
2 votes have been placed for this debate. Showing 1 through 2 records.
Vote Placed by FuzzyCatPotato 3 years ago
FuzzyCatPotato
Juan_PabloJoJoju1998Tied
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Total points awarded:60 
Reasons for voting decision: FF, sources, refuted.
Vote Placed by baus 3 years ago
baus
Juan_PabloJoJoju1998Tied
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Reasons for voting decision: Pro tried so hard, bless him. FF with equally reliable sources and s&g.