Debate Rounds (5)
although it gives couples a chance to produce a child, a child should not be born with high risks of complications and mutations. Such as low birth weight, an increase of chromosomal and musculoskeletal defects and even death. 15-24% of IVF trials end in miscarriage, and for a couple to undergo miscarriages can be emotionally and mentally scarring. Yes, genetic screening can be possible because of IVF, but the use of ART (assissted reproductive technology), again increases chromosomal and musculoskeletal defects. A child with birth defects can cause the child to live a hard and painful life.
http://fertility.treatmentabroad.com.... Along with that one type of in vitro fertilization there are other procedures that may result in a higher success rate of having a healthy baby. Another type of in vitro fertilization, is frozen embryo tranfer also known as FET. This type of transfer involves spare healthy embryos to not be transferred in the first in vitro fertilization cycle. This allows for a woman to try to have a baby if her original IVF didn't work as expected. This type of transfer is helpful to women whose ovaries have developed ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome because it allows for her body to first recover before transferring the embryos into her body. These types of In vitro fertilization make it that much more safe to have a healthy baby.
Advancement in IVF technology is very rapid in a few countries including the U.S. Yes, only SOME IVF babies are successfully born, but there are more risks than benefits of IVF, and here's why. The technology advancement clashes with some people whom believe it is unethical. Fertilitycare.net states an article, 'Dignitas Personae' and they believe that 'IVF does not respect basic principles so it is unethical and should be avoided by all catholics, patients, and doctors alike.' Religion plays a big role in ethics, and many people disagree with IVF simply because it isn't a natural process of life. This article also states that over 2 million embryonic lives have been lost since 1991, and can be seen as deaths of babies. All the types of 'programs' and transfers are more detrimental than beneficial.
http://www.slate.com..., in this link it talks about how genetic screening shouldn't be seen as whether it is moral or not. The woman talks about her 3 miscarriages and just wanted to see if her embryos were chromosomally normal or not. Then it talks about a woman, Amanda Kalinsky, who just found out that she had a gene for Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome, which would eventually lead to her death around 30-50 years old. However, instead of letting her family history get the best of her she selected only embryos without the GSS gene thanks to genetic screening. This allowed for the 3 kids she had and 2 embryos she stored to be healthy and not die in their middle adulthood like her. This being said although it is controversial for genetic screen testing to happen sometimes it may be what is best for your family.
Web.MD states that IVF can cause many consequences to the mother and the child. The mother that had 3 miscarriages, had take an emotional toll. That being said, she was at risk of super ovulation and hyper stimulation syndrome. http://www.medscape.com... has sections of risks and failures of genetic screening. Some women/couples do not have the financial possibility to afford all the genetic screening, or even the IVF treatment along with other medical bills for the miscarriages and medication. The IVF treatment alone ranges from $10,000-15,000. Also many embryos are in danger during culturing. Mentioning genetic screening, ethical issues arise such as 'racial discrimination' and physical features to be changed or morphed to not even appear like the parent's child. The screening can also effect false negative and false positive results. 'Most women who receive false-positive results have normal pregnancy outcomes; however, these results can lead to further diagnostic testing, leading to increased anxiety about possible outcomes including pregnancy termination. A woman who receives a negative multiple marker screening result still has a residual risk for having a baby born with Down syndrome or a neural tube defect. This means that a woman who is screen negative may have, in fact, a false-negative result and have a baby born with, for example, Down syndrome.' The article also mentions uncertainties, and it becomes unfair when one couple gets fortunatly lucky but other can not.
It can be debated whether a couple would be happier with a child that can get a disease, or without one. There are some ethical issues that are mentioned when a couple has a sick infant, and that is the topic of having another child to save the first. This website: http://humrep.oxfordjournals.org... information about whether it is ethical or not to have a 'savior' child. There are ethical and legal problems that can arise from embryo adoption. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov..., here, you can take a look at what can happen to not only the parents, but the offspring as well; resulting offspring, liability, and compensation issues, legality of monetary compensation for donors.
If you read Web.MD's website, they also include facts about the different IVF risks, which include premature birth, low birth weight, stillbirth, spontaneous abortion, preeclampsia, placenta previa, and, to a lesser extent, birth defects and cerebral palsy; also multiple births. 'Most risks are due to multiple births, and not to the IVF procedure itself. Twins, triplets, and other multiple-birth children are at much higher risk of premature or low birth weight than are singleton children. And premature birth and low birth weight are linked to a host of health risks.' Something to consider is the problems that arise from multiple births, and that is transferring more than two embryos increased multiple-birth risk, with no corresponding increase in the chance for a livebirth.
Genetic screening along with the debate of IVF, again out weigh benefits, are are more risky in terms of medicine.
IVF may have good intentions for a couple who is infertile, but too many consequence rise than risks. Although some couples choose to freeze their embryos with their partner or try to adopt/donate, ethical, legal and financial problems arise.
Many religions such as catholicism does not accept IVF. Fertilitycare.net strongly states that many religious groups see IVF as disrespectful and not natural; so all doctors, patients and catholics should avoid it. Not just religion, ethically many people disagree with the idea of freezing embryos and killing over 2 million of them. Since 1991, IVF has lost over 2 million embryonic lives. IVF also loses the babies that were unfortunatly not successfully born. The ones born risk from low birth weight, increase in chromosomal and musculoskeletal defects, and disease appearing in life. Genetic screening can help with the future diseases, but the screening does have risks also.
In order for a patient/couple to even consider IVF, they need to realize if they can even afford it? IVF process alone in the U.S. ranges from $10,000-15,000. Also keeping in mind genetic screening ranges from $100, $2,000, along with medication. tp://ghr.nlm.nih.gov...)
Legal issues such as embryo adoption and or donations arise. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov... ; the author, Scott R. discusses women with legal issues that arise because of different laws needing to be made for IVF. There are other situations scuh as use and payment of surrogates, only certain countries have limitations, and maximum storage times.
In conclusion, IVF should not be considered for couples who have difficulties trying to have a child. It is safer to not have a child rather than a sick one with chance of birth defects and disease later in life. IVF has only been 21% successful. (spuc.org). and 15-24% of IVF prganancies end in miscarriage. IVF's risks outweigh the benefits. It should be known to be a danger to humans than a 'privelege'.
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