IVF allows for anyone to have baby, single women and men, especially couples who have had a difficult time conceiving. It allows for a higher chance of conception and evening being able to plan the right time to have the baby. The baby has a higher chance of being born healthy and extra sperm or eggs can be frozen and saved to use for another time. IVF also allows women who have been through menopause have a baby because their uterus can still hold the baby.
Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) is also possible, allowing couples to find chromosomal deficiencies in an embryo before it gets implanted in the uterus.
According to the article, women with missing, damaged, or blocked Fallopian tubes were some of the first successful cases of IVF. Also it can help men with infertility problems by combining IVF with ICSI being the only way for men with low sperm count to still be able to biologically father a child.
IVF hold numerous benefits for anyone trying to conceive a baby. It also has a very high success rate.
As stated in http://humrep.oxfordjournals.org... , it can be problematic for couples to undergo IVF. The idea of "having to have a family to be happy" is the thought of many couples who many not be able to conceive naturally and for those, they rush into things to quickly. This can be a substantial problem for those because IVF is expensive for many going upwards of $12,000. IVF though allows for high success rates in child birth, comes with the complications of social and economic issues. For the child, if sperm is donated for the embryo to be created they will have social stigma of not having a father that could possible cause psychological issues. Couples also who cannot conceive because of age will also have social issues and even health. Stress on the body can take its toll and for an older women or gentlemen to have to wake up in the middle of the night frequently and have the stress of raising a child could cause them health issues. For the couple to surely want to be artificially inseminated, according to the article, they need to first go to counseling which in result could deter them from making such decision.
IVF can be very psychologically and financially stressful. The stress cannot be entirely avoided, but it can be reduced by a staff that helps normalize the experience as much as possible. Joining classes or groups and talking to other IVF families can help to cope with these stress situations. It is also very important for couples to go through concealing and to make sure that they don't loose sight of their relationship. Doing research and understanding the type of budget IVF needs is the very first step in doing IVF. It its very expensive therefore careful consideration must be taken.
According to http://www.usatoday.com..., European and American scientists have developed a simplified process that would only cost about $265. A human embryo doesn't need much beyond basic solutions, a steady pH level and constant temperature is all.
Ethical issues have always been around the use of invitro fetalization in main concerns: what happens to those embryos that are not used? Only a few embryos will survive. Through the procedure outlined in http://www.cdc.gov... , one of the many embryos will be killed. The creation of many can also be frozen but other problems will rise such as property rights of divorced couples. It is unethical to just seperate the parents from having the ability to the children. Families with many embryos frozen will also feel obligated to have more childeren even if they went in to have one or two. According to https://ispub.com... , the frozen embryos stock has added up and putting the "children on hold" can be ethically frowned upon. If the couple were to pass away the embryos would not be held and would be ultimately destroyed. Potential life would be killed in the process
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is a test used to determine if genetic or chromosomal disorders are present in embryos produced through (IVF. PGD screens embryos before they are transferred to the uterus so couples can make an informed decision on how they want to move forward. Embryos unaffected can be selected for transfer to the uterus. PGD is often recommended when one or both partners has a history of heritable genetic disorders, or if one or both partners is a carrier of a chromosomal abnormality, also if he mother is of advanced maternal age.
PGD is used to determine which embryos will be the healthiest and to ensure a healthy pregnancy. Sex determination is often a reason of PGD because parents want a specific sex of baby. HLA matching can also benefit from this. HLA matching is when embryos are chosen based on blood type or other factors in order to match a sick sibling.
According to http://en.wikipedia.org..., PGD is mainly used to determine which embryos are healthiest and also to increase pregnancy chances.
Excess embryos are often frozen but in circumstances where to many are created they are stocked up greatly. In https://ispub.com... , the abundance of embryos which will later be killed or stuck there till used. The amount of embryos made is to much for the amount of childern to be produced. There must be a moderation when it comes to the creation. This can cause issues in social and mental ways. If the parents feel as if they are killing the children they could have psychological repercussions. Also social in ways of religious views and family. If both of those are combined it could make a couple feel alone and without support. Also the economic issues with having the embryos frozen for such a long period of time. The couple would have to be very financially stable in the circumstances.
To that I say that there are many things to do with excess embryos such as having them frozen. In that instance parents can choose what they want to do with the frozen embryos. Frozen embryos can also be donated to science for testing or even to other families to have babies. More than a few embryos are made so that parents can use PGD to determine which embryos they want to use as healthy babies. Only 4 embryos are ethically allowed to be put into the woman's uterus. This type of procedure is so controversial and stressful that the parents must be informed of all the repercussions and effects from the procedure. Doctors and therapists are recommended to the couples.
Dealing with the financial side, parents would know in advance how much the procedure costs therefore they would be able to prepare for the baby and all of the baggage with the IVF procedure. There are many support groups to help the parents deal with all the stresses.
When the issue of multiple birth arise, there can be problems with handeling the children if they were not prepared. If they did prepare for one child but end up with two, the implications could cause money complications and stress to the parents. The risks of this are much higher in IVF. Other risks arise of gestaional diabetes, pre-esclampsia, premature labor, hemorrhage and fetal growth problems. These can cause long term issues for the children. Premature labor could lead to possible death in the child which can result in psychological problems for the parents. The parents went through so much to have the problem of losing the child or in other cases the child have life long issues. The science isn't 100% perfect and that's why these issues arise. If the DNA is messed with they child can have problems because the science isnt fool-proof. For these issues, there is no way to fully check if the problems will occur or if they child will be completely healthy.
The procedure that most clinics use is first medications are prescribed to stimulate egg production. Multiple eggs are sometimes wanted because some eggs will not develop or fertilize after retrieval. An ultrasound is used to examine the ovaries, and blood samples are taken to check hormone levels. Then eggs are taken through a surgical procedure that uses the ultrasound to guide a needle through the pelvis to remove the eggs. The male is also asked to produce sperm, which is prepared for combining with the eggs. Through incemination the sperm and eggs are mixed together and stored in a laboratory to fertilize. Through this procedure, a single sperm is injected directly into the egg in an attempt to achieve fertilization. The eggs are monitored to confirm that fertilization and cell division are taking place. Once this occurs, the fertilized eggs are considered embryos. The embryos are transferred into the woman"s uterus three to five days following fertilization. A small tube is inserted into the uterus to transfer the embryos. This procedure is painless for most women, although some may experience mild cramping. If the procedure is successful, implantation typically occurs around six to ten days following egg retrieval.
When it comes to ownership of the eggs, it is hard to fully say who owns them. Both partners were needed to create the embryos and for situations of divorce or splitting apart, the fertilized eggs are still there for use. People can donate them but the likely hood of finding someone to have it is rare. The women may want to have the children or the males new lover but they would need to receive permission. It can be an issuse of another person being the parent of their child. Problems with court ruling as well since they would not want to waste the embryos or in the end waste their money they spent time and moment to go through this procedure. There is not a federal law or way to solve this issue out there. There is the "right to life" ideal used where it maintains that life begins at fertilization and that pre-embryos should never be destroyed. It depends on the couple and their internal belief of how they think the embryos should be taken care of. In-vitro fertilization causes more problems than benefits in a scientific, factual way.