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Chloeklement12
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svega4729
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IVF Debate

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Voting Style: Open Point System: 7 Point
Started: 4/26/2015 Category: Science
Updated: 1 year ago Status: Post Voting Period
Viewed: 337 times Debate No: 74245
Debate Rounds (5)
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Chloeklement12

Pro

In the article "Why Choose IVF?" by David B. Smotrich, founder and medical director at the fertility center, La Jolla IVF, it discusses the basic benefits of In Vitro Fertilization. The first being that it allows any individual or couple to have a baby regardless of familial status, sexual orientation, or the inability to have a child from either parent. Parents who have had a hard time conceiving or who are incapable of having children have used In Vitro Fertilization as a way to have a child. In Vitro Fertilization helps both patients and doctors address infertility issues. It was traditionally used to help both men and women who are infertile. For example, women with missing, damaged, or blocked fallopian tubes were some on the first patients to use In Vitro Fertilization. The women"s egg is fertilized outside of the females body and then placed inside her uterus, increases her chances for implantation. In Vitro Fertilization increase the couples chances of having a healthy pregnancy and child. Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis is possible and allows couples to identify chromosomal deficiencies in the embryo before it is placed inside the mother"s uterus. Finally, In Vitro Fertilization allows a couple to have a baby when they want to or are ready to have a child. It allows couples to have more control over factors such as spacing out their children, getting pregnant when they"re ready, and knowing when the child will be born. (http://www.lajollaivf.com...)
svega4729

Con

Although IVF can provide infertile couples with a child, the process of and going through IFV have many risks. The most common result of IVF is the women giving multiple births. Because she is implanted with multiple embryos, there is a high chance on giving birth to multiple fetuses. A pregnancy with multiple fetuses carries a risk of either early labor or the babies being underweight. If the procedure is successful, some experts believe the baby is more prone to birth defects after birth. There is also a large chance of miscarriages. According to the mayo clinic 15-20% of IVF who use fresh embryos end with miscarriages and the percent using frozen embryos is even higher. Also about 2-5% of women who use IVF will have an ectopic pregnancy. This is when the egg is placed in the fallopian tube, rather than the uterus, so the egg doesn"t survive. Even before the fertilization occurs, the woman has many health risks. The first being Ovarian Hyper stimulation syndrome, where the use of drugs causes the ovaries to swell. Other symptoms also consist of painful bloating, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, and if the pregnancy is successful however, the symptoms last several weeks, and weight gain or shortness of breath may also occur. The egg retrieval procedure also consists of complications. The needle used to collect eggs could cause bleeding, infection, damage of the bowel, bladder or a blood vessel, according to the mayo clinic. These infections and the use of certain medications can also increase the risk of the woman developing ovarian cancer.
Along with the medical risks, IVF can also cause extreme stress to both the male and female involved. This is because the risks are higher for this procedure and the financial needs are extremely high. The stress not only affects both parties emotionally, but they could also complicate the woman"s physical state, even more.
(http://www.mayoclinic.org...)
Debate Round No. 1
Chloeklement12

Pro

With In Vitro Fertilization being as successful as it is, there are multiple procedures and solutions to avoid and resolve the problems that might arise during the process. According to New Life Agency, In Vitro Fertilization- the very procedure that has played a part in the rise of multiple births- is playing an important new role in reducing multiple births thanks to the new technology and techniques. One procedure is Blastocyst Culture and Transfer where clinicians will grow embryos in a nutrient-rich media for five days instead of the conventional three. This allows them to select the healthiest, promising embryos for implantation. This means that fewer will need to be implanted and if needed, the remainder will be frozen for future use. There is also Elective Single Embryo Transfer where a single embryo will be placed in a women under 35. This is because studies have shown that implanting multiple embryos in women undertheageof35 increases the chance of multiple births instead of improving the pregnancy rate. (http://www.resolve.org...) In Vitro Fertilization is said to also have the risk of causing preterm birth. There is however a drug that was approved on February 3rd, 2011 by the FDA to help reduce the risk of preterm birth. This is a progesterone supplement (hydroxyprogesterone caproate) that has proven effective in reducing the risk. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov...) Another problem that is said to arise due to In Vitro Fertilization is Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome. This is best prevented by very careful use of injectable FSH medication in women who are at risk of hyperstimulation. Another procedure that has been proven very effective with OHSS is a Lupron trigger. This is where use of Lupron (a GnRH agonist medication) instead of HCG (traditional method) tiggers final maturation of the follicles and eggs for In Vitro Fertilization. The Lupron trigger can eliminate or dramatically reduce the risk of OHSS. (http://www.advancedfertility.com...) If in the very rare case there is excessive bleeding from the ovaries or injuries to organs close the ovaries, a blood transfusion or surgery to repair the damage may be needed. Pelvic infection, while very rare, is another risk and can be avoided by checking to see if the woman has had prior pelvic infections because women who have are more at risk. (https://www.winfertility.com...) Finally, a study was found that the risk of any cancer (including ovarian) was 26% lower in women after they conceived via In Vitro Fertilization versus those who conceived naturally. (http://www.nccrm.com...)
svega4729

Con

Even if some of the medical risks of the woman were dismissed, there are still ethical issues that play a large factor on the controversy of the procedure. The main ethical issue of IVF is the death rate of the fetuses. Because only about 25% of the babies actually have a successful birth (according to ESHR"s data) the religious argument, is at whatever stage the embryo doesn't survive, is considered murder, if a scientific/ medical mistake. Even if the baby survives, and is healthy through and after birth, many religions believe that a baby should be conserved naturally, so they are against one fertilized in a laboratory. When choosing the healthiest embryo to implant, that also means that others will not be used, and if they are not being used because they are 'unhealthy' the couple will likely decide to let those embryos thaw out, without the intention of donating, or saving them for another time. This would be the equivalent to killing them.
Another potential issue would be custody arguments. If the couple was able to have a successful birth, and later split up, normal custody disagreements and courts would apply. However, if an egg was fertilized and the woman decided not to go through with IVF, the male could have issues with his sperm not being used. Or if the couple split up before the placement of the embryo, both would want custody of the fertilized egg.
(https://ispub.com... / http://www.legalnewsarchive.com... )
Debate Round No. 2
Chloeklement12

Pro

While many believe that the advances in technology may create ethical dilemmas during In Vitro Fertilization such as choosing the characteristics of the child, there are multiple benefits to genetically screening the embryo before fertilization. One example of genetic screening is Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis where microscopic evaluation of early-stage (3-day) embryos identify those with the best development characteristics in order to ensure the embryo will develop correctly and safely however will not have anything to do with the physical characteristics of the embryo. There are many other advantages to PGD, one being that there are fewer pregnancy terminations. It allows parents to avoid transmission of genetic diseases as well as increasing the survival rates of embryos. (http://abingtonreproductive.com...) Comparative Genomic Hybridization is another example of genetic screening. This new screening technique examines the 5-day blastocyst (nutrient-rich embryo), allowing analysis of all 23 pairs of chromosomes in order to identify those with abnormalities thought to be responsible for implantation failure and to avoid the embryos that have a higher risk of failed implantation. (http://www.resolve.org...)
svega4729

Con

There are a few options for couples to choose between what they want with the extra embryos. The first is to freeze them. The couple can save them for when they are ready to have another child, or they can be frozen indefinitely. The mother of the octuplets, couldn"t dispose any of the embryos, which is why she wanted all 8 implanted. That decision is not only rare because it is illegal, but also because it is unhealthy and unsafe. However if you freeze the leftovers, the couple can decide to become pregnant again. Another option is donating to other infertile couples. Although this decision if difficult to make, because of the unknown of how and where their child will grow up, it is an extremely humble and generous thing to do for other couples who cannot get pregnant. A different choice, would be to donate the embryos to medical research. According to the CNN article, couples find donating to research gives the embryos a status somewhere between born children and clumps of cells. These couples can help medical and scientific advancements in research. The last option would be to thaw the embryos without donating them, which would let the embryos die, before advancing to another stage of life.
(http://www.cnn.com...)
Debate Round No. 3
Chloeklement12

Pro

Embryos are frozen in order to be used in future transfers while retaining much of their potential to achieve pregnancy. Previously, the results from freezing an embryo after In Vitro Fertilization were very low due to the formation of crystals in the interior of the embryo often leading to its structure being damaged and resulting in a very poor prognosis. There is however, a new technique in which the embryos are prepared with high concentrations of protective substances that make the liquid medium prevent the formation of intracellular ice. The survival rate is over 90% in which the embryo keeps intact and their chances for correct implantation increase. This helps avoid multiple births at a time because for the embryo"s not used at the time, they can be frozen and used another time. Having frozen embryos means that you have a good chance of becoming pregnant in the future with minimal effort. Another advantage is that if the fresh IVF cycle does not end in pregnancy, you may schedule another treatment right away by thawing one of the extra embryos. (http://www.institutobernabeu.com...) If you choose not to freeze your embryos, you may donate the embryos to other mothers who are unable to conceive. The embryos are assigned to embryos that are most compatible with the blood type in order to ensure that it is a most compatible fit. The act of helping other couples achieve their desired pregnancy is an emotional benefit and provides a valuable destination for the embryos that would have remained cryopreserved. (http://www.institutobernabeu.com...)
svega4729

Con

As previously stated, multiple births is one of the most common risks of IVF. According to a One at a Time article, 24% of IFV procedures, cause multiple births, this is because IFV involves transferring 2 or 3 embryos into the womb. According to the HFEA guidance, the number of embryos implanted should not be over 2 for women under 40, and no more than 3 for women over 40, however there are times doctors will implant more, to increase the likely hood of the woman getting pregnant. If two separate embryos are implanted, the mother can become pregnant with twins (non-identical). Plus the chance of a single embryo dividing is also higher after IVF, resulting in identical twins. This makes it possible to become pregnant with twins from one egg, or triplets or quadruplets by 2 implanted eggs. Data from the UK (2005) shows that almost 46% of IVF patients using fresh eggs were multiple births.
(http://www.oneatatime.org.uk... )
Debate Round No. 4
Chloeklement12

Pro

The reality with using In Vitro Fertilization to conceive a child is that there will be risk factors and you are not guaranteed a perfect pregnancy. Even with conceiving a child naturally, there are no guarantees. One of the risk factors of In Vitro Fertilization is multiple pregnancies. However, according to the New York Daily News, fewer triplets, quadruplets and higher multiple sets of babies are being born from In Vitro Fertilization in the United States due to more restrictive guidelines. Doctors are no longer implanting multiple embryos in a woman who is trying to become pregnant therefore decreasing, if not eliminating, the chance of multiple births. (http://www.nydailynews.com...) Also previously stated, Blastocyst Culture and Transfer also reduce the risk of multiple births. Clinicians will grow the embryos in a nutrient rich media for five days instead of the conventional three. This will allow them to select the healthiest, promising embryos for implantation that way fewer will need to be implanted and it will decrease the risk of having multiple births. (http://www.resolve.org...) While In Vitro Fertilization has had multiple risks that go along with the procedure, the advances in new technology has fairly decreased the amount of risk factors along with coming up with solutions to the problems thus making In Vitro Fertilization the safe and the right procedure for those who are unable to conceive a child the natural way.
svega4729

Con

Although natural pregnancy hold many risks, In Vitro Fertilization holds so many more. Because IVF is a difficult process, that happens outside of the woman"s body, ownership of the embryos gets complicated. If a couple decides to split up after the eggs have been fertilized, the question is who gets to keep them? It was the woman"s egg, but the man"s sperm fertilized it, so they belong to both parties. If an egg was fertilized and the woman decided not to go through with IVF, the male could have issues with his sperm not being used. Or if the couple split up before the placement of the embryo, both would want custody of the fertilized egg.
As a conclusion, not only are the ethical and legal issues from IVF, but the mother and fetus both are at risk of medical issues. The implantation of the eggs can cause different issues for the mother itself. If the pregnancy is successful, there are also high chances that there will be multiple births. Multiple births then leads to problems with the children and the mother. Because of these risks, and more, it seems as though if a couple is infertile and unable to have a child, it would be best not to go through with the procedure of IFV.
(http://humrep.oxfordjournals.org... )
Debate Round No. 5
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