According to the American Pregnancy Association, IVF can be expensive for couples trying to conceive, and the costs are not covered by most insurance plans, as one cycle of IVF can cost anywhere between $12,000-$17,000. IVF also requires emotional commitment for the people involved, therefore stress-related psychological problems can occur, especially if treatment is unsuccessful. IVF also carries risks, including damage to bladder and bowels during egg retrieval, and an increased chance of multiple pregnancy and premature birth/low birth weights.
IVF procedures that screen the embryo for disease and chromosomal disorders can screen the entire genome for all kinds of genetic problems, but they also have the capability of screening for traits such as eye color, hair color, height, and other physical characteristics of the baby. This process is referred to as Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), and raises ethical questions regarding the concept of "designer babies" and choosing embryos based on their possible physical traits (Glassner, 2013).
After IVF, excess embryos are either donated, kept frozen, or destroyed. Freezing and storing the embryos for future pregnancy can be costly, at around $480 a year. If patients decide that they don't want to keep the embryos, they may be donated to other couples, to research, or destroyed. Destroying the embryo poses questions regarding where life actually begins, and remains a topic of debate regarding ethics.
The procedure does have it risks, but in the long run the outcome is a more positive one. Couples are given the chance to have children when they had no hope before and yes, children may be unwanted but it can go either way. Most IVF clinics follow the procedure as normal by starting the patient on fertility drugs to cause eggs to develop, extracting the eggs and combining them with sperm in a petri dish in a lab, then the embryos are put into the women's uterus to grow into a fetus. (AARP Medicare Plans)
There are many questions as to whether or not the embryo belongs to the male or the female, considering that the sperm belongs to the male and the egg itself belongs to the female. IVF makes it difficult to determine who has ownership of the embryo.