The Instigator
acole1436
Pro (for)
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The Contender
heyriggle
Con (against)
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IVF debate

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Voting Style: Open Point System: 7 Point
Started: 4/26/2015 Category: Science
Updated: 1 year ago Status: Post Voting Period
Viewed: 297 times Debate No: 74231
Debate Rounds (5)
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acole1436

Pro

Some of the basic benefits of IFV is the fact that anyone can have a baby. It means that regardless of sexual orientation or any other extenuating circumstances couples still have a chance to have children. The infertility problems that occur naturally in some people can be overcome. Due to the nature of IVF it increases the chance of conception(Why Choose IVF?). Also this allows conception to happen at a time that is convenient for the couple involved. Due to the genetic screening that happens before embryos are placed in the womb it allows scientists to find problems with the embryos before they are conceived. (Fertility Treatment: In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF)) As eggs can be frozen it gives a chance for older women to have children after menopause.
Some couples due to either the male or female are unable to reproduce naturally. Even if fertility issues are not a problem IVF has other benefits that make pregnancies that are typically high risk (older age) not as significant as a problem. If there is a problem with one parent then there is still a chance for that couple to have a child with the donation of either a sperm or egg.
heyriggle

Con

Couples who have a low conceiving rate also have a low success rate, even with IVF. There are also ethical considerations to be made for couples that have a low success rate, are experiencing financial hardship, but also really want to have the baby. This can result in them opting for riskier procedures in order to make the possibility of having a baby entirely possible. They may opt for having more embryos implanted in order to have a higher success rate, but there is actually no correlation between the two and "pregnancy rate does not increase for transfers of four, five or six embryos, multiplicity continues to increase (up to 45% for twins and 16% for triplets) (Ibid.)." There is also a correlation between multiple pregnancies and risks for both the mother and the child.
Debate Round No. 1
acole1436

Pro

Agreed the average cost of one round of IVF is 12,000. However, this should not be a reason for IFV to not be allowed. The problem is that in a couple who pays around 16,800 dollars a year for insurance (2014 Employer Health Benefits Survey) who typically does not use their insurance IVF under circumstances dictated by the insurance company would allow couples to do IFV on a budget instead of putting themselves into a situation that compromises their health. It is actually against medical procedure for doctors to put more than 4-6 embryos in the womb at a time, due to the health complications that can follow. While a couple that has problems conceiving naturally have low IFV fertility rate the rate of natural pregnancy is significantly lower. IT gives the couple a choice. As technology for IFV advances over the years many of the problems could easily be solved.
heyriggle

Con

IVF technology is advancing enough to allow for the implantation of embryos into another woman"s womb. Also because of this, there is a possibility of having couples raise a baby that is not biological theirs. There is also an issue of population growth. Adoption is a very viable option and also is more ethically sound. It reduces both population growth and it also reduces the amount of kids on the street. With adoption too, there is less of a risk to the surrogate mother, who can face risks like, "including ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome, bleeding, infection, cysts, anesthesia-related complications, and possibly an increased risk of thromboembolism, stroke, myocardial infarction. (Neumann, P. J., 1997.)" For couples who want to have biological children, that is understandable, but couples who are ready to have a child that isn"t biologically theirs, it is better for everyone involved to adopt instead.
Debate Round No. 2
acole1436

Pro

While in some cases couples do opt for a child that is not biologically theirs in most cases it is usually at least half their child. Usually their is a problem in either the women or males reproductive system that does not allow the couple to reproduce with only the couple involved. However, the adoption process is often long and just as expensive if not more expensive than IVF. The average adoption cost can be anywhere from 8,000 to 40,000 dollars (Child Welfare Information Gateway). As you can see adoption can sometimes be just as expensive.

Genetic screening is done to weed out any potentially harmed eggs.(PGD and IVF - Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis & In Vitro Fertilization, Pros and Cons About PGD and PGS) genetic daises such a CF that only has a one in fourth chance of appearing in in children where the CF gene is present. Through genetic screening couples could still produce children and have them unaffected and carry on their genes without the risk of CF developing in their children.
heyriggle

Con

Excess embryos may be thrown away by the facility, but the couple can elect to have other things done to the embryos. The frozen excess embryos can be donated to other couples, but this can be problematic in the sense that most couples wait too long to make the final decision, which adds up in bills for both the facility and the couple. There are also a lot of legal ramifications to the process and many families never end up going through with it due to the process and the fees, or not being able to afford a lawyer. Another option is to donate the eggs to research, specifically to stem cell research, but that comes with ethical dilemma of the ethics behind stem cell research, specifically on embryonic cells, as the removal of embryonic stem cells kills the embryo. There is debate on whether or not the embryo is a living thing.
Debate Round No. 3
acole1436

Pro

Many of the Problems that arise after embryos are created could be solved through decision making before any of the procedures are completed. Couples should have to sit down with a specialist and go through signing a contract before anything is paid for or done with. This would keep all the problems that happen with unused eggs to a minimum.

Through deciding early and having a legally binding contract ll the expenses would e known upfront and then on top of that both the facility and the parents would know exactly what would happen before any of the procedure is done.
heyriggle

Con

Multiple births usually occur as a result of the procedure of placing more than one embryo within the uterus. Especially in couples that have a very low fertility rate, "more than three embryos are transferred mostly in couples with a poor chance of pregnancy ("ESHRE Task Force on Ethics and Law," 2003.)." The implantation of multiple embryos also "resulted in 27.3% twin deliveries and 3.4% of deliveries of triplets or more (Ibid.)." There is also a correlation between multiple births and premature deliveries. For triplets, they "represented 5.6% of all the IVF babies, but they accounted for 30% of the high prematurity (Ibid.)" There is also a correlation between a high mortality rate in cases of multiple births. Many of the couples who have low fertility rates have a high number of embryos implanted in hopes of a more successful procedure, research actually shows that there wasn"t a correlation between the two, "pregnancy rate does not increase for transfers of four, five or six embryos, multiplicity continues to increase (up to 45% for twins and 16% for triplets) (Ibid.)." While many parents view the possibility of a multiple birth as a successful procedure and a wanted outcome, the effects on the children are "more likely to be preterm, to be SGA (birthweight below the 10th centile of reference curves adapted for gestation and sex) and to die in the perinatal period (Ibid)." This also increases the chances of further growth and mental retardation down the line for the children. There are also financial consequences to multiple births, creating a stressful environment for the mother and family, this results in "maternal depression, less possibility for mothers to work outside the home, and an increased rate of divorce. (Ibid.)"
Debate Round No. 4
acole1436

Pro

Ivf does produce a high rate of multiple births, over 20% (IFV-The Risks). The technology is still fairly new. Through improvements in the technology much of these problems could be avoided. While this is a problem it is a fairly documented problem. Any couple that has done their research on IVF will know that this could be a potential outcome of the procedure and should be responsible and plan accordingly. Many of the multiple births that happen through IFV are when the procedures are not followed correctly.

IVF gives an opportunity to couples who otherwise could not have children. While it can be rather expensive that is due to the fact that the technology is still fairly new. Through more development of the technology it could become cheaper, more reliable and safer for all of those involved. Not only all of the above mentioned benefits but through the use of IFV a system could be created to perfect genetic screening that could lead to many if not all of the problems that occur genetically could be spotted before the embryo is developed fully.
heyriggle

Con

Legal issues that arise with the ownership of the eggs really boils down to who actually has legal rights over the eggs. In all technicality, both the male and the female have rights over the embryos, as they are a mix of the two in zygote form. The donation off female gametes is a different story entirely. The main legal issues that come as a result of donation of embryos produced by IVF are, "whether embryo donation is viewed as gamete donation or adoption; the rearing rights and duties of donors and recipients in resulting offspring; liability; and compensation issues; and the legality of monetary compensation for donors. (Robertson, J. A., 1995.)" There have been issues in the past where the sperm and egg cell donor could not agree on what actions to take with the unused embryos. In addition, when couples do not make a decision or leave the clinic without telling them what further action to take with the remaining embryos, who is responsible for the fees that incur with the storage of the zygotes, along with does the clinic now possess legal rights over the embryos? As a whole the "main ethical issues concern the effect on offspring, consent and counseling of donors and recipients, avoidance of mixing embryos or gametes from different sources, and payment of donor expenses (Ibid)."
Debate Round No. 5
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