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amandapalm
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tbrown1321
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In Vitro Fertilization

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Voting Style: Open Point System: 7 Point
Started: 4/26/2015 Category: Science
Updated: 1 year ago Status: Post Voting Period
Viewed: 357 times Debate No: 74221
Debate Rounds (5)
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amandapalm

Pro

In Vitro Fertilization is the process of physically combining an egg and sperm in a lab. Once the egg is matured into an embryo, it will be transferred into the uterus. IVF has many benefits, such as achieving a successful pregnancy, giving birth to a healthy baby, and preventing birth defects. Not only does IVF benefit the baby born, but it benefits the parents as well. IVF can help to bypass problems with the mother's fallopian tubes and it can help diagnose fertilization problems. After hearing about all the benefits a person may choose to undergo IVF. Some people who undergo IVF may choose this because they have blocked fallopian tubes, male infertility, patients who are older, or patients with low ovarian reserve. IVF is also a choose for same sex couples to have a chance at having a baby. IVF has many benefits, and it is designed to help a wide range of patients.
tbrown1321

Con

On average, the cost of in vitro fertilization is about $12,000 per cycle; this includes the cost of fertility drugs, ultrasounds, and blood tests. Additional treatments such as ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection) for sperm issues or PGD (pre-implantation diagnosis) to prevent passing on genetic disorders will raise the price of your IVF. The number of IVF cycles needed will vary by patient, factors that play a role in the success of IVF treatments are the age of the patient, the degree of fertility, and the quality of embryo and semen. Each additional IVF cycle has been estimated at about $7,000. Unfortunately, some women are unable to conceive even after undergoing multiple IVF cycles which can be financially and emotionally damaging. IVF requires a large investment of money, time, and effort, so women and couples must be prepared to deal with the potential for ineffective treatment.The purpose of fertility drugs, like hCG used in the first stage of IVF is to stimulate ovary production, but sometimes these drugs can create a condition called ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, causing the ovaries to swell and become painful. Patients who suffer from ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome also usually experience nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. These symptoms usually do not last more than few weeks. In extreme cases, however, this condition can persist and lead to kidney failure or blood clots.Clinical studies have indicated that IVF pregnancies have a slightly higher chance of premature delivery or low birth weight. Preterm babies may suffer from gastrointestinal issues, weaker immune systems, anemia, hypoglycemia, heart problems, as well as an increased risk of cerebral palsy. While many women and couples using IVF to become pregnant might welcome the idea of becoming parents to more than one child at once, multiple pregnancy carries distinctive risks, which are exacerbated for the older women who typically use IVF. Multiple pregnancy risks include all of those associated with premature delivery and low birth weight, as well as maternal hemorrhage (excessive bleeding), high blood pressure during pregnancy, gestational diabetes, and the risks associated with cesarean sections, through which many multiples must be delivered. Couples who have difficulty conceiving should take into consideration the cost, time, and stress that may come from IVF and how it will affect one another throughout the process and the aftermath if a baby is not conceived or has health issues.(Infertility & Reproduction Health Center)
Debate Round No. 1
amandapalm

Pro

Most states have laws that require insurance providers to either offer or provide coverage for the in vitro fertilization, which is included in infertility treatment. This helps to minimize the cost of the procedure in order to make it more affordable. An additional treatment such as, PGD (pre-implantation diagnosis) and ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection) are not required. It is a choice of the patient, and if they choose to not have the costs won"t rise. Also it is completely up to the patient on whether they want the IVF procedure or not. They will already know what to expect and what it takes to have a increased chance of a successful pregnancy, therefore they would already be prepared for any outcome. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) occurs in a very small percentage of women. OHSS in moderate cases, can normally be managed with oral pain medications. If it increases to a severe cases, the person may need to hospitalized. In moderate to severe cases, some of the liquid form the abdominal cavity can be removed in order to relieve the symptoms. This is done by paracentesis. OHSS can be prevented by a careful use of injectable FSH medications. Fertility specialists take close looks on the risk factors that develop OHSS, so they choose the best ovarian stimulation procedure and the proper amount of drug doses. Other methods of prevention include, using a Lupron trigger, monitoring the patient more closely, and giving less of a dose of the drug to patients. Couples are at risk of having a premature birth whether or not they use IVF procedures. But you can reduce your chances of having a premature birth caused by IVF procedures. Leading a healthier lifestyle is one way to reduce the risk. If you eat right, exercise, and don"t smoke, you will be able to better maintain a healthy body, which will decrease your chance of having a premature birth. Another way to reduce the risk of premature birth is by using frozen embryos. Studies have proved that frozen embryos have better results than fresh embryos. This is because the frozen embryos are placed in the uterus at a more natural time in the patient"s cycle. Most of the time in IVF procedures multiple embryos are placed into the uterus, but it just a single embryo is placed instead, it will increase your chances of carrying you baby to term as well. Not only does reducing the numbers of embryos implanted reduce the risk of premature birth but it also reduces the multiple pregnancy risks. Of course a couple needs to know about the risks and costs of IVF, but with great knowledge about the procedure and an understanding of the possible outcomes, will help reduce the emotional stress that it may cause.

Sources: About Health: Reduce Your Risk of Preterm Birth from IVF, Advance Fertility, and NCSL
tbrown1321

Con

The prospect of engineering a child with specific traits is not far-fetched. IVF has become an increasingly common procedure to help couples with infertility problems conceive children, and the practice of IVF confers the ability to pre-select embryos before implantation. For example,PGD allows viable embryos to be screened for various genetic traits, such as sex-linked diseases, before implanting them in the mother. Through PGD, physicians can select embryos that are not predisposed to certain genetic conditions. For this reason it is commonly used in medicine when parents carry genes that place their children at risk for serious diseases such as cystic fibrosis or sickle cell anemia. Present technological capabilities point to PGD as the likely method for selecting traits, since scientists have not established a reliable means of embryonic gene selection. An early and well-known case of gender selection took place in 1996 when Monique and Scott Collins saw doctors at the Genetics & IVF Institute in Fairfax, Virginia, for IVF. The Collins" intended to have a girl, as their first two children were boys and the couple wanted a daughter in the family. This was one of the first highly publicized instances of PGD in which the selection of the embryo was not performed to address a specific medical condition, but to fulfill the parents" desire to create a more balanced family. The Collins" decision to have a "designer baby" by choosing the sex of their child was featured in Time Magazine"s 1999 article "Designer Babies". Though the Collins" case only involved choice of gender, it raised the issues of selection for other traits such as eye color, hair color, athleticism, or height that are not generally related to the health of the child.Some ethical concerns held by opponents of designer babies are related to the social implications of creating children with preferred traits. The social argument against designer babies is that if this technology becomes a realistic and accessible medical practice, then it would create a division between those that can afford the service and those that cannot. The wealthy would be able to afford the selection of desirable traits in their offspring, while those of lower socioeconomic standing would not be able to access the same options. As a result, economic divisions may grow into genetic divisions, with social distinctions delineating enhanced individuals from unenhanced individuals. For example, the science-fiction film Gattaca explores this issue by depicting a world in which only genetically-modified individuals can engage in the upper echelon of society.(In Vitro Fertilization (IVF))
Debate Round No. 2
amandapalm

Pro

Genetic screening, such as PGD can be very beneficial. PGD is used to diagnosis in early embryos whether the baby will have any genetic diseases. Genetic screening is beneficial for many patients, such as women over 35, women with miscarriages, prior pregnancies with chromosome abnormality, several failed IVF cycles, and more.
-When women are older it increases the risk of giving birth to a child with a chromosomal abnormality.
-Around 50% of first trimester miscarriages are due to a abnormality in the chromosomes. This is normally because of the woman"s age or the arrangement of a parent"s chromosomes. This is when PGD can be used for either circumstance.
-Once a woman has a chromosomally abnormal pregnancy, the risk of having the same problem occur again in increased. PGD can reduce the chance of a chromosomal abnormality in a future pregnancy.
-If a couple has multiple failed cycles of IVF, it may because of a genetic disease. PGD is then recommended to see if there is a problem, and to explain why they have had so many failed cycles. A PGD can be used to find out the problem before trying a another cycle. This will not only save the embryo but it will save the parents money as well.

Genetic screening has the possibility of increasing the chance of a healthy baby for most people. Genetic screening can help to provide a sense of relief from uncertainty. Not only does it relieve stress and worries, but it can help couples make important decisions for about the future health of them and their baby. This is why genetic screening can be very beneficial. In order to prevent genetically designed children, fertility specialists should not offer the patients the opportunity to change the gender, eye color, athleticism, or anything of that matter. They can restrict genetic screening to just the diagnosis of genetic diseases and how they can prevent or treat the diseases. By using genetic screening just for the diagnosis of diseases it prevents the baby from suffering and the cost and emotional strain of raising an ill child.

Sources: Bionet, American Cancer Society: Genetic Testing, Genetics & IVF Institute: Genetic Services
tbrown1321

Con

In many ways, infertility is a numbers game, the more embryos created means more tries for success.In a recent survey of 58 couples, researchers from the University of California in San Francisco found that 72 percent were undecided about the fate of their stored embryos. In another study last year of more than 1,000 fertility patients from nine clinics, 20 percent of couples who wanted no more children said they planned or expected to keep their embryos frozen indefinitely. Couples have held on to embryos for five years or more, waiting on an epiphany that never comes.Couples have several options, each with ethical implications. Some couples choose to implant the extra embryos at a time during the woman's cycle when she is not likely to become pregnant. Others choose to donate the embryos for stem cell and fertility research. Still others take them home to bury, or allow them to be destroyed at the clinic. Michelle DeCrane of Austin, Texas, has also been paying for embryo storage for two years. She has a 2-year-old daughter -- and six frozen embryos. "I would love to have another baby, if I were younger -- I'm 40 -- and if money was not an object." She finds herself trapped in a mental loop; while she doesn't have the same love for the embryos as she has for her daughter, neither does she consider them anonymous laboratory tissue.(Beil, Laura) Some parents who want other choices besides thawing discover that they have none. Kelly Damron of Phoenix, Arizona, was hoping to donate her three embryos to science after she'd had her twins through in vitro. "Our clinic said that wasn't an option," she says. She wishes now she had asked about the possibilities for unused embryos before choosing a physician. "I asked every other imaginable question," she says. "I didn't even think to ask that one." So she paid for another year of storage; it was too hard to let go at that moment. But, eventually, she did. "Some days I wish they were still there," Damron says. "I wouldn't say that I grieved for them, but I definitely had feelings about the loss." (Beil, Laura)This makes the decision to donate to other infertile couples harder due to the bond with their embryos, in most cases couples will let the eggs thaw out rather than giving them to infertile couples they don"t know. For couples who have excess eggs frozen due to IVF the problems surround this can cause emotional strain due to their decision of what should happen to the excess eggs.
Debate Round No. 3
amandapalm

Pro

Before a couple chooses to have IVF, they need to know what will happen to the extra embryos that are not implanted. They need to know their options. Some clinics allow them to donate the embryos to scientific research, donate them to other infertile couples, let the embryos thaw out, keep them frozen, or have them destroyed at the lab. Other clinics may not give the couple all the same opportunities. For some couples this may be harder then it would be for others. Nobody imagines they would grow feelings for just an embryo, but they do. This causes the disposition of embryos to be harder. But the couple has a choice. They can donate to a couple who is having the same struggles of infertility just as they did. The couple doesn"t have to donate their embryos to random couples, they can pick whom they wish to receive it. For the donating couple, this may be easier then just letting the embryos go to a random couple or letting them thaw out. Some believe that destroying embryos is unethical, so if they know they have the option to donate it to a infertile couple it is reassuring. For other donating couples, they may not like the idea of strangers having their baby, so they may choose to donate the embryos to science. This way they know the embryos aren"t being wasted. A couple undergoing IVF needs to be aware of all their options of what to do with leftover embryos.

Sources: Embryo Adoption
tbrown1321

Con

The risks of a multiple pregnancy are much higher than those in a single one. The risks are increased for pregnancy related complications such as gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia, preterm labor, hemorrhage and fetal growth problems.The gestation period for single pregnancies is 40 weeks on average. Twin pregnancies are more likely to last between 35-37 weeks. Premature babies are at risk of many more health problems than full term babies. Because of this, preterm babies are often put in neonatal intensive care units for monitoring and treatment. Developmental delays and cerebral palsy are more common in multiple births. Due to these increased risks, some fertility doctors recommend that couples undertake counseling before starting fertility treatment.After the initial euphoria fades when finding out that it's a multiple pregnancy, there are many psychological and economic issues that arise. Once a multiple pregnancy has occurred there is little that can be done. Embryo reduction is a very high risk procedure as it can compromise the desired fetus. There is a procedure called fetal reduction which involves injecting drugs into the undesired fetus. This is a highly controversial issue that highlights some of the more complex moral issues associated with fertility treatments.(IVF And Multiple Pregnancies: What Are The Risks?) Octomom, Nadya Suleman had conceived all 14 of her children through IVF treatments provided by Beverly Hills physician Dr. Michael Kamrava. He faced harsh criticism when it was learned he implanted 12 embryos that resulted in the octuplets. Medical guidelines recommend no more than two embryos. Kamrava said he was trying to please an insistent patient. The California Medical Board revoked his license, citing gross negligence. In this popular case multiple pregnancies from IVF are due to too many embryos being implanted inside the mother which is extremely risky as well as unethical.(8 facts about 'Octomom' Nadya Suleman)
Debate Round No. 4
amandapalm

Pro

There will always be some risk with In Vitro Fertilization, whether it is with multiple pregnancies or not. The Dr, Kamrava, who implanted 12 embryos inside of Nadya Suleman, was wrong in doing so. He was negligent in that case. Fertility specialists warn the patients of IVF about the risks of multiple pregnancies, and the potential issues with the babies" health and the mother"s. If the patients agree to follow through with the procedure after hearing about all the risks that is their choice. Any patient deciding to undergo In Vitro Fertilization needs to clearly understand all the potential benefits and risks. IVF does not guarantee a successful pregnancy, and that is just the reality of the situation.

IVF Procedure Steps for most clinics:

Step One: Initial IVF Consultation & Preparing the Ovaries for Stimulation
When preparing for a cycle of IVF, the patient will undergo a Mock Embryo Transfer. Following the pre-cycle testing, the doctor will tell the patient of their plan for the procedure. Many patients start a cycle by taking birth control pills.

Sep Two: Ovarian Stimulation and Monitoring
In the stimulation phase of the cycle, medications and injected to stimulate ovaries and produce eggs. During this phase the patient comes in multiple times for monitoring appointment. This is when the patient receives the information about the progress of their cycle.

Step Three: The Trigger Shot and Egg Retrieval
The stimulation phases ends with a trigger shot, which sets ovulation into motion. The patient"s partner"s sperm is normally collected on the day of retrieval of the eggs. The patient will then get an IV that delivers anesthesia medication, for the procedure. Once the eggs are retrieved the fertilization phase starts.

Step Four: Inside the Lab: Embryo Development
After both the sperm and eggs are collected the fertilization process begins. Fertilization either occurs by conventional fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection. The embryos will start to develop once fertilization takes place.

Step Five: Embryo Transfer
The embryo transfer is a simple procedure that is relatively quick and similar to the mock embryo transfer performed in the testing pre-cycle. Before the embryos are implanted the doctor and patient decide how many embryos to implant. The patient can view the procedure on a visual monitor as it is occurring. Once finished, the patient is giver instructions until it is time to get a pregnancy test.

Step Six: Pregnancy Test
The patients blood is drawn to see whether or not she is pregnant . If the test comes back negative, the patient can try a another cycle. If it comes back positive, the patient is pregnant.

In Vitro Fertilization can be risky, but if it successful, the patient becomes pregnant, and has a baby. Anyone deciding on whether or not to undergo IVF, needs to do their research, talk to a specialist, and think about their choice very carefully. Many people don"t agree with the procedure, but others do. It is completely up to the potential patient.

Source: Shady Grove Fertility: IVF Process Step by Step
tbrown1321

Con

Legal issues arise when, after the embryos are frozen, but before implantation, couples divorce and disagree about what should be done with the frozen embryos. The available options usually involve donation to the IVF clinic for research purposes, donation to another infertile couple, or use by one of the members of the original couple still wanting to have a child.At present there are no federal statutes that provide a uniform consensus on resolving the disputes over the ownership of pre-embryos. Several states have enacted legislation to address the disposition of frozen embryos.A review of the literature, state case law and state legislation makes clear that scholars, courts and legislatures cannot agree on the future of frozen pre-embryos. Most agree that federal legislation should be enacted. According to some commentators, the legislature must first define the rights of a pre-embryo by determining its legal status. Scholars state that courts and legislatures may apply three types of legal status to pre-embryos. The first is the "right to life" approach which maintains that life begins at fertilization and that pre-embryos should never be destroyed. The second approach gives pre-embryos the "status of property" and focuses upon the rights of the donors. The third is the "special respect" approach, which advocates a balancing test that takes into account the rights of all parties. In conclusion IVF is a complicated and expensive process that does not always provide positive results yet instead can cause physical and emotional harm which increases the amount of risks and begins to out way the pros with cons. (In Vitro Fertilization: Who Gets the Pre-Embryos After Divorce?)
Debate Round No. 5
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