The Instigator
CassvilleDebate
Pro (for)
Losing
2 Points
The Contender
J.Kenyon
Con (against)
Winning
19 Points

Increase Social Services for persons living in poverty.

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Voting Style: Open Point System: 7 Point
Started: 1/13/2010 Category: Society
Updated: 7 years ago Status: Voting Period
Viewed: 5,611 times Debate No: 10819
Debate Rounds (5)
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CassvilleDebate

Pro

In 2006 the United States Census Bureau reported that persons at the ages of 18 and under have higher rates of poverty than any other age group in the US and have had since 1975. That being said, we are able to see where the problem lies and just who needs to be helped to fix a large portion of it. It is because of that fact that my partner Evan and I stand in firm affirmation of the resolution the states:

Resolved: The United States federal government should substantially increase social services for persons living in poverty in the United States.

Observation 1: Harms

Sub Point A:: Having Children in Poverty not Only Hurts the Individual but also Hurts the U.S.

The Economic Costs of Poverty (americanprogress.org)
Subsequent Effects of Children Growing Up Poor
By Holzer, J. Duncan, and Ludwig, January 24, 2007

But there is also an economic case for reducing child poverty. When children grow up in poverty, they are somewhat more likely than non-poor children to have low earnings as adults, which in turn reflects lower workforce productivity. They are also somewhat more likely to engage in crime and to have poor health later in life. Their reduced productive activity generates a direct loss of goods and services to the U.S. economy.

Sub Point B: Poverty is on Rise
Why Poverty Persists
NBER (National Bureau of Economic Research)
June 2006

Specifically, they find that the unemployment rate, median wages, and wage inequality in the lower half of the wage distribution all are significant determinants of poverty rates. Overall, increasing the unemployment rate by 1 percentage point increases the poverty rate by 0.4 to 0.7 percentage points.

Bureau of Labor Statistics
THE EMPLOYMENT SITUATION – AUGUST 2009
Sept 4th 2009

In August, the number of unemployed persons increased by 466,000 to 14.9 million, and the unemployment rate rose by 0.3 percentage point to 9.7 percent. The rate had been little changed in June and July, after increasing 0.4 or 0.5 percentage point in each month from December 2008 through May. Since the recession began in December 2007, the number of unemployed persons has risen by 7.4 Million, and the unemployment rate has grown by 4.8 percentage points.

Sub Point C: U.S. is Experiencing a Shortage of Skilled Laborers

By Teresa Watanabe
April 21, 2008
Los Angeles Times
Shortage of skilled workers looms in U.S.

With baby boomers preparing to retire as the best educated and most skilled workforce in U.S. history, a growing chorus of demographers and labor experts is raising concerns that workers in the nation lack the critical skills needed to replace them.
Observation 2: Inherency
Sub Point A: The cost of day care is too high for families in poverty to meet.
NACCRRA Price of Child Care Report
2008

According to the report, in 2007, the average price of full-time care for an infant in a center was as high as $14,591 a year. For a 4-year-old in a center, parents paid up to $10,787 a year for full-time care. Parents of school-age children paid up to $8,600 a year for part-time care in a center

Sub Point B: College has become too expensive.

National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education
Report says college is too expensive
Dec 5th 2008

A new report from the National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education suggests that soaring college costs threaten to make college unaffordable for the majority of Americans.

College tuition and fees rose 439% from 1982 to 2007 while the median family income rose just 147%, without adjusting for inflation.

Sub Point C: There is a shortage of space for daycare.

The SunTimes
Prescott James, The Daily Graphic
March 2009

Daycare facilities around the country have a shortage of space available for the care of young children. April Krastel is the executive director for the Portage Day Care Centre Inc., and as a childcare professional, she recognizes the shortage of space for children who need care.

The affirmative team proposes the following plan to help the impoverished and decrease the number of families in poverty by addressing the problem at its root source.

The affirmative team will allow for all persons living in poverty to receive free daycare as paid for by the government. In addition, the affirmative plan will allow funding for persons living in poverty to also obtain up to $7,000 for college tuition for as many years as needed in exchange for 500 hours community service hours per year (or 1 and half hours per day.) Should the work not be completed during the college years there is up to a one year grace period to pay back all of the money. In addition, should the student quit college or not pursue the hours needed, the money will become equivalent to that of a loan where they will be required to pay back the money by their own means.

The plan will be funded by adding an additional ten cent tax to every dollar spent on cigarettes, alcohol, and all published pornographic material, (i.e. magazine, movies, etc…) The affirmative team claims the power of FIAT.

Observation3: Solvency
Sub Point A: Education helps countries get out of poverty.
UN Works 2009
http://www.un.org......
Every day, Romsaas Wang sees children die of preventable diseases because their mothers could not read and write. "If you really put effort into education it will influence all the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). It's more risky not to invest in education because education helps countries get out of poverty."
Sub Point B: Providing Day Care will increase the amount of jobs in the US.
Investing In America's Youngest Children Is Essential for an Effective Stimulus Plan and a Long-Term Boost to Economy
STEVE BARNETT, Jan. 8 2008

Early childhood programs not only will free parents to take new jobs, they can directly contribute in many other ways to the positive effects of a stimulus package. Multipliers for child care are 1.91 for total output (91 cents in additional economic activity on top of each dollar of federal investment) and 1.50 for employment (1 additional job created for every two new jobs created by federal investments in child care).

Sub Point C: People with a College Education are less likely to be in Poverty

2004 American Community Survey

The more education a person has, the less likely they will live in poverty. The poverty rate among people who earn a college degree is much lower than the poverty rate among people with only a high school diploma. And those who earn a high school diploma do much better than those without one.

Advantage One: Early Education helps kids later in life.

Investing In America's Youngest Children Is Essential for an Effective Stimulus Plan and a Long-Term Boost to Economy
STEVE BARNETT, Jan. 8 2008

In addition to improving early learning and development, high-quality early education decreases school failure, increases economic productivity and decreases crime and delinquency.

Advantage Two: Universal Childcare increases the quality of child care.

Universal Childcare, Maternal Labor Supply and Family Well-Being
Michael Baker, University of Toronto and NBER (National Bureau of Economic Research)
April, 2008

In addition to increasing the quantity of places, there has been some emphasis on
increasing the quality of care. Part of this has come through regulatory changes. Formal
qualifications were raised for both CPE and family caregivers. The government has also
implemented new wage policies in the sector to make it a more attractive profession: phased in over a four year period. In addition, it resulted in an average wage increase of 38 to 40 percent.
J.Kenyon

Con

===> CX Questions <===

How many people will be helped?
How much will the plan cost?
How much revenue will a cigarette tax increase bring in?
Are there any similar programs in place?
How can you guarantee that graduates will find jobs?
How does one qualify for this service? (By this I mean income levels).
Define "poverty," please.

===> Harms <===

The negative accepts the Harms and intends to run a counterplan.

===> Inherency <===
A/C) Day Care Too Expensive

[Wall Street Journal, ‘09]
The Community Reinvestment Act (Stimulus Bill) of 2009 provides a $2 billion increase in grants to states for childcare services for low-income working parents

B) College Too Expensive

[Wall Street Journal, '09] "The Stimulus Bill of 2009 provides a $17.4 billion increase for Pell Grants, increases in student aid, and college work study programs."

===> Solvency <===
OBSERVATION 1 – Plan
Taxing cigarettes has significant unintended consequences, from lowering usage rates (thus negating the revenue increase from the tax), increasing smuggling activities, and other related crimes.
[LaFaive et. al, '08] "There are ancillary impacts that have negative effects -- smuggling, theft, murders over cigarette smuggling, and financing terrorism."

A) The piece of evidence the affirmative cites is regarding the UN MDG goals. Its stated purpose is to reduce "extreme poverty," child mortality rates, fight epidemics such as AIDS and "developing global partnerships for development." Clearly what this is talking about is helping developing countries. The US is not a developing country.
Every day, Romsaas Wang sees children die of preventable diseases because their mothers could not read and write." This is obviously not describing America. The solvency does not match the harms; the case is not prima facie.

B) "Investing In America's Youngest Children Is Essential for an Effective Stimulus Plan and a Long-Term Boost to Economy… Early childhood programs not only will free parents to take new jobs, they can directly contribute in many other ways to the positive effects of a stimulus package."

This is basically making recommendations for a hypothetical stimulus package. As I stated in inherency, the stimulus bill has already been passed. In addition to the daycare programs I cited, there has also been a $2.1 billion increase in early childhood development.

C) "People with a College Education are less likely to be in Poverty"

Increasing the money available for education does not improve attendance.
[Holzer, '07] "Recent research suggests that Pell grants have not increased college attendance among low-income youth."

Also, student loans increase the cost of college tuition. (evidence in 2NC)

Finally, even assuming that the affirmative plan DOES improve college attendance, educational attainment is very loosely linked to income.

[Schiller,'‘08] "Empirical studies that examine variations in individual wage levels find that educational attainment accounts for a very small proportion of that variation. Earnings gaps among people of equal education have been increasing at least as fast as gaps between individuals of different educational attainments. Inherent ability, inherited wealth, geographical location, motivation, discrimination, economic conditions, and simple luck will all influence a person's income opportunities. As a result, the income distribution of college graduates overlaps that of high school dropouts. Some high school dropouts earn more than college graduates. Over a million college graduates are poor."

===> Disads <===

IMMIGRATION MAGNET
A) Uniqueness- Illegal immigrants are leaving the country now due to lack of jobs
[Drash, ‘09] "America's economic boom created a high demand of day workers. Many of those jobs have evaporated, resulting in more and more immigrants flooding day labor job sites and standing on street corners. Immigration experts say evidence suggests day laborers have begun packing as a result of the economy and tougher immigration enforcement."

B) Link - Illegal Aliens Eligible for Social Security Benefits
[Hayes, 03] "You don't have to be an American to receive SSI payments. Like food stamps, Medicaid and almost every other form of social insurance that America has developed to help its citizens, SSI is targeted by people from other countries as a tool to materially improve their lives without work."

C) Impacts

1. Illegal immigrants increase taxes to pay for Medicaid.
[Melchior,'07] "Unlimited access to all kids also hurts veterans and and senior citizens because rising property taxes --directly related to the expense of education and health care for illegal immigrants -- forces them to sell homes they've owned for years but can no longer afford. Likewise, wounded Illinois veterans are the lowest nationwide."

2. Decline in the economy causes war
INTERNAL LINK: Illegal Immigration Hurts the US economy because it attracts unskilled workers.
[Malanga, '09] "Illegal immigrants from countries with poor, ill-educated populations yield a mismatch between today's immigrants and the American economy and has left workers poorly positioned to succeed for the long term. Many of today's arrivals are farm workers in their home countries who come here with little education or even basic training in blue collar occupations like carpentry or machinery. Nearly 2/3 of Mexican immigrants are high school dropouts."

IMPACT
[Mead, '98] "Think about the Great Depression. The biggest impact was WWII. Let the economy crash far enough and we stop playing ‘The Price is Right' and start up a new round of 'Saving Private Ryan.'"

The negative intends to run a FEDERALISM disad in the 2NC. I will outline it here.
1.UNIQUENESS – Federalism is being restored in the present system
2. LINK – Increasing social services violates federalism
3. IMPACTS – Crowding out state efforts, coercion, tyranny, & war

As well as a CROWD OUT disad
1. UNIQUENESS – Private charities stable despite recession
2. LINK – Government spending crows out private charity
3. IMPACTS – Crowds out private efforts to solve, necessary to promote democracy/civil society

===> Topicality <===

The negative declares the right to present topicality arguments in 2NC, which will be determined by the affirmative answers to CX questions.

===> Counterplan <===

The USFG should abolish all social services effective immediately.

OBSERVATION 1 - Competition
A) The CP is mutually exclusive: you can't abolish social services and increase them.
B) The CP is ideologically competitive and is necessary to test the fundamental assumptions of a liberal welfare state.
C) The CP is legitimate because it has a solvency advocate.

OBSERVATION 2 – Solvency

A) Current welfare policies are responsible for generational poverty
[Tanner, '96] "Welfare creates incentives that increase poverty causing behavior such as unwed motherhood and decrease poverty-avoiding behavior such as work. Poor individuals who do not receive welfare are nearly 2 and a half times more likely to escape poverty within a year than are individuals who receive welfare."

B) Bureaucratic waste robs the market of resources that would be creating jobs and solving poverty.
[Tanner, '96] "70 cents out of every dollar goes, not to poor people, but to government bureaucrats and others who serve the poor. Few private charities have the bureaucratic overhead and inefficiency of government programs."

C) Abolishing welfare leads to increased charitable giving.
[Flynn, '02] "Despite the recession in public spending on social services beginning in the mid-to-late 1970s—between 1977 and 1982 federal social service spending declined almost 30 percent in real terms the number, revenues, and employees of social service agencies could continue to grow. The reason was marketization, the sharp growth in the financing of social services to a broadening client base. From 197
Debate Round No. 1
CassvilleDebate

Pro

CassvilleDebate forfeited this round.
J.Kenyon

Con

===> Intro <===

Unfortunately, due to the nature of the policy debate format, the affirmative's forfeiture makes continuing this debate impossible.

===> Inherency <===

I would point out to the judges that my evidence for inherency is more recent and should be preferred. The affirmative has not countered any of my arguments, so inherency should go to the negative.

===> Solvency <===

As I said, evidence for student loans and rising tuition would come in the 2NC

[Singell, et. al. '05] "Private colleges' tuition, and public colleges' out-of-state tuition, increased by roughly $800 for every $1,000 increase in Pell recipients' average grants."

Again, the affirmative did not respond to any negative arguments, so solvency should automatically go to the negative.

===> Disads <===

Affirmative has not refuted, all points go to the negative.

===> Counterplan <===

Part of subpoint 3 of the solvency was cut off (even though I was within character limits). The evidence should read:

[Flynn, '02] "Despite the recession in public spending on social services beginning in the mid-to-late 1970s—between 1977 and 1982 federal social service spending declined almost 30 percent in real terms the number, revenues, and employees of social service agencies could continue to grow. The reason was marketization, the sharp growth in the financing of social services to a broadening client base. From 1977 to 1994, government spending on social services declined 15 percent while philanthropy grew by 33 percent."

Again, the affirmative has not refuted any points.

===> Conclusion <===

The debate clearly goes to the negative. I hope to have the opportunity to debate this some time in the future, or even to try running my affirmative ; )
Debate Round No. 2
CassvilleDebate

Pro

CassvilleDebate forfeited this round.
J.Kenyon

Con

All arguments extended.
Debate Round No. 3
CassvilleDebate

Pro

CassvilleDebate forfeited this round.
J.Kenyon

Con

All arguments extended.
Debate Round No. 4
CassvilleDebate

Pro

CassvilleDebate forfeited this round.
Debate Round No. 5
4 comments have been posted on this debate. Showing 1 through 4 records.
Posted by Maikuru 7 years ago
Maikuru
Default to Con due to multiple forfeits.
Posted by J.Kenyon 7 years ago
J.Kenyon
Part of Solvency C of my counterplan got cut off for some reason (even though I was within the character limit). Obviously, I don't expect voters to evaluate arguments made in the comments, but for your convenience:

"From 197[7 to 1994, government spending on social services declined 15 percent while philanthropy grew by 33 percent.]"
Posted by J.Kenyon 7 years ago
J.Kenyon
"In round, you will post only cross ex questions which I will answer in the 1NR portion of the block."

*Should read "In round 3..."
Posted by J.Kenyon 7 years ago
J.Kenyon
OK, so I will ask cross ex questions at the start of my 1NC, which you will answer in the 2AC, and also can ask me your cross ex questions. I'll do my 2NC in the second round and start by answering your cross ex questions and then asking more of my own. In round, you will post only cross ex questions which I will answer in the 1NR portion of the block.

you will give your 1AR, followed by my 2NR, then your 2AR in the fifth round. For my fifth round, I will thank you for the debate and the viewers. I think this is the best way to follow the format as closely as possible. Everything make sense?

Also, do you want to shorten the character limit in the rebuttals so it reflects the timing in a live debate? We can decide that later. Your call.
4 votes have been placed for this debate. Showing 1 through 4 records.
Vote Placed by Danielle 7 years ago
Danielle
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