Our race has many superior qualities, compared with other races.
Debate Rounds (2)
To preface, the word race can be interpreted in many ways. The definition I'm dealing with is one of biological differences between different groups of people. For a more standard definition, I refer to the first two premises of the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy on the subject, "(1) Races reflect some type of biological foundation, be it Aristotelian essences or modern genes; (2) This biological foundation generates discrete racial groupings, such that all and only all members of one race share a set of biological characteristics that are not shared by members of other races," (1). It may be simpler to think of races as subspecies of the entire human race.
To start, one must understand how different races came to be about. We must look far into the past for the answer. Before the mass global migrations of people during the last 500 years, populations were geographically separated and were reproductively isolated [...] this has caused for different populations of humanity to evolve in different directions, developing distinctive genetic traits and characteristics. [...] By 40,000 years ago the divergent evolutionary branching of the human species had produced five subspecies," (2). These different subspecies are often divided by appearance: things like skin color. "In the more accurate system of racial classification, names assigned to the various races are based on geographical regions that are at center of their area of evolutionary development and origin.
1.The Congoid of southern Africa
2.The Capoid of sub-Saharan Africa
2. The Australoid of India, Southeast Asia, Indonesia, New Guinea and Australia
3. The Mongoloid of Northeast
4. The Caucasoid of Europe, North Africa and West Asia" (2). These different geographical areas vary greatly in several environmental aspects such as climate and local plants and animals. The differences in these areas leads to a different set of adaptations and survival skills to thrive in each respective area. Therefore, the survival techniques of early humans must have been different in the distinct areas. As humans continued to live and thrive in these different places; they would inevitably adapt biologically to better flourish in their respective areas. "This biological foundation [would be] inherited from generation to generation," (1). This process would continue up until great migrations of people began- about 500 years ago, (2).
Today, races are generally distinguished based on skin color. This classic distinction is an insufficient way to differentiate the groups; although, it does point to one critical fact. Roughly everyone whose lineage can be traced to one area shares some physical traits with each other. For example skin color- African Americans whose roots come from certain parts of Southern Africa all share a black skin color. The thing is, skin color is just one gene of dozens of thousands found in the human genome. Everyone within a race shares this one specific gene with each other, but not with other races. If this can happen with one gene, why couldn't it happen with others. In fact, it is irrational to think that out of the thousands of genes found within the human genome, that only one is shared within one race. There must be other genes that are also found exclusively in a single race.
Some of these genetic differences are more obvious than others. One of the most widely acknowledged is that Africans tend to be the best athletes. Jon Entine has researched the topic extensively and written about it in his book, Taboo: Why Black Athletes Dominate Sports and Why We are Afraid to Talk About it. "More than 80 percent of the National Basketball Association and over 60 percent of the National Football League are made up of black players. Blacks hold every major running record in the world, according to Jon Entine in an article about why race matters in sports." (3). He continues "People of West-African descent are superior in speed and jumping. With more fast-twitch fibers than other groups, muscles can contract faster and more powerfully. The athletes" small, efficient lungs lend itself to sprinting as well," (3). "'If you can believe that individuals of recent African ancestry are not genetically advantaged over those of European and Asian ancestry in certain athletic endeavors," notes retired University of California-Berkeley molecular biologist Vincent Sarich, "then you probably could be led to believe just about anything.'" (3). There is just something in the genetics of people who are of West African decent that results in the slight differences in muscle and other bodily system. The result is plain: they tend to be superior sprinters. Conversely, other races have superiority in other areas; Entine writes, "Whites of Eurasian backgrounds have more upper body strength and dominate in weight lifting and shotput. And, East Asians excel at diving, ice skating and gymnastics due to an inherent predisposition for flexibility," (3).
These are only obvious differences in races. There are literally thousands of other potential differences between the genetics of distinct human subspecies. That means there could be thousands of different qualities than some races are more prone to excelling at than others.
Each and every race is different at some level. That means, inevitably each individual race is going to be superior to all the others in certain areas; this holds true to all races. It only follow then that regardless of race, everyone can truly say, "Our race has many superior qualities, compared with other races."
(3)Jon Entine, Taboo: Why Black Athletes Dominate Sports and Why We are Afraid to Talk About it.
Later in the article, cited by Pro, it states, "philosophers and scientists have reached the consensus against racial naturalism." Racial naturalism is "the old, biological conception of race, which depicts races as bearing "biobehavioral essences: underlying natural (and perhaps genetic) properties that (1) are heritable, biological features, (2) are shared by all and only the members of a race, and (3) explain behavioral, characterological, and cultural predispositions of individual persons and racial groups"" (1).
My contender should give a clear definition of a certain race rather than trying to use a general term because "the term race cannot refer to anything real in the world, since the one thing in the world to which the term could uniquely refer"discrete, essentialist, biological races"have been proven not to exist. Zack (2002, 87"88) provides an accessible summary of the racial skeptic"s argument against the biological foundations for race, sequentially summarizing the scientific rejection of essences, geography, phenotypes, post-Mendelian transmission genetics, and genealogies as possible foundations for races" (1).
The debate title includes the phrase "our" race, but the contender does not give a clear standpoint on how he defines and describes "our" race. Otherwise, in any comparison there must always be a superior or inferior quality, and whether the quality is superior or inferior changes under different circumstances. For example, a rabbits white fur may be superior to a squirrels brown coat in the winter when trying to hide from predators, however, the squirrel has the superior quality when the snow has melted. This debate is to explain how one race has many superior qualities to other races, not to explain that anything may have superior qualities to anything else, since that is clear. Naturally, in a comparison between two things, one thing will have qualities that are more beneficial in certain circumstances.
Ranallo forfeited this round.
awesomeAlan forfeited this round.
No votes have been placed for this debate.
You are not eligible to vote on this debate
This debate has been configured to only allow voters who meet the requirements set by the debaters. This debate either has an Elo score requirement or is to be voted on by a select panel of judges.