Resolved: The United States ought to promote democracy in the Middle East
Debate Rounds (5)
1st round for acceptance, and so on.
I value morality as per the evaluative term "ought" in the resolution, which is defined as "used to express duty or moral obligation". By Merriam-Webster.
Society divides people into in and out groups, the "other" lie outside scope of morality or humanity, making them invisible. This means questions of structural violence and exclusion frame our understanding of moral terms.
Winter and Leighton 01 "Peace, conflict, and violence: Peace psychology in the 21st century."
To recognize the operation of structural violence forces us to ask questions about how and why we tolerate it. Our normal cognitive processes divide people into in-groups and out-groups. Those outside our group lie outside our scope of justice. Those who fall outside are morally excluded, and be- come either invisible, or demeaned so that we do not have to acknowledge the injustice they suffer. Moral exclusion is an outcome of social cognition. We must be vigilant in noticing outsiders. Structural violence is not inevitable if we become aware of its operation.
Failing to account for structural violence means it is impossible to generate objective obligations; agents are subjective.
Thus, the standard is resisting structural violence.
The Role of the Ballot is to assume the position of a critical feminist and engage in the struggle for educational meaning.
Chowdhury 09 "Locating Global Feminisms Elsewhere: Braiding US Wom[x]n of Color and Transnationa; Feminisms"
Illuminate the everyday interactions in wom[x]n"s studies spaces and the political economy. Education represents both a struggle for meaning and a struggle over power relations. There are critical issues at stake. A feminism that reproduces and espouses such assimilationist politics is complicit in the maintenance of that which it claims to transform.
If the neg doesn"t address gendered concerns, they function in a patriarchal norm. Reject their imminent silence on gendered violence and force them to justify the power relations they perpetuate. Defer Aff if they can"t justify the subject of their discourse.
First in Inherency
Particularly, the feminine analysis of power relations is critical to functioning democracy"otherwise it becomes oppressive
Phillips 98 http://books.google.com...
The female self has more `permeable' boundaries. Writers propose this capacity for broader self-definition as a model for democratic politics. The very capacity others can easily be manipulated to the disadvantage of wom[x]n. A second strand warns against deliberation serving as a mask for domination. Feminists who focus on the inequality of power between men and wom[x]n point to the ways wom[x]n are silenced, encouraged to keep their wants inchoate, and heard to say ""yes' when they mean ""no'. Feminists bring a vivid recognition of the capacity of a dom- inant group to silence or ignore voices it does not wish to hear.
Yemen is falling behind in the struggle for womxn"s right, but womxn overwhelmingly wish they had more opportunities for education.
Gunter 12 http://www.d3systems.com...[x]ns-Status-in-Yemen.pdf
Yemen appears to show a decline in rights among wom[x]n. Yemeni Muslim wom[x]n respondents indicate they would like better education as a means to leading a happier life. Yemeni wom[x]n could be happier if certain aspects of their lives were to be altered.
Second is the Internal Link
Gender shapes our education discussion; we have to be specific to feminine needs to promote change.
Roudi-Fahimi and Moghadam 03 http://www.prb.org...[x]nDevelopingSocietyFemaleEducationintheMiddleEastandNorthAfrica.aspx
Gender sensitivity is a key aspect of the quality of education. Educational systems should be sensitive to the specific needs of girls and wom[x]n. Yet the curricula and teaching materials.
Yemeni wom[x]n are instrumental to social change, but access to education is a major obstacle in their independence and political participation
Tholen 11 http://www.iwpr.org...[x]n%E2%80%99s-voices-in-yemen/
Wom[x]n have been instrumental to movements. In Yemen, wom[x]n were among the earliest and most vocal protesters for social and political change. Yemeni wom[x]n feel compelled to contribute to the political changes in their country. Access to education, independence, and political office is currently limited for many Yemini wom[x]n. Over half have no formal education. Wom[x]n"s political empowerment need expansion if Yemini wom[x]n are to fully participate in the future decision-making for their communities and society on all levels. Increased opportunities to participate in the public sphere will be crucial moving forward for wom[x]n to remain central agents in and beyond the political transformational period, ultimately ensuring true social change.
Education is a necessary form of democracy promotion; beyond the surface level it lays groundwork for sustainability and is a necessary condition for success.
Acemoglu et al 05 https://core.ac.uk...
High levels of educational attainment as a prerequisite for democracy. Education promote democracy both because it enables a "culture of democracy" to develop, and because it leads to greater prosperity, which is also thought to cause political development. Education broadens outlooks, restrains them from extremist doctrinies, and increases capacity to make electoral choices. A "high" level of education is a necessary condition.
Third is the Plan
I advocate the United States ought to promote democracy in Yemen through the creation of school"s that provide a safe, educational space for wom[x]n.
Schools are a fundamental part of democracy; they promote citizenry and critical reasoning
Howard and Kenny92 http://vrcbd.missouri.edu...
Moral education takes place in both the formal and the hidden curriculum. The school provides educators opportunity to promote both citizenship skills and critical reasoning in the democratic governance of their schools. Advocate democratic schools for educational, psychological, and philosophical reasons.
Greater involvement is required by the government to bridge gender gaps in education, a necessity to upholding basic human rights. Plan key.
Singh 15 http://photos.state.gov...[x]nandGirls_Vol15_No12.pdf
Many countries are falling behind in carrying out the EFA agenda. The challenge is to bridge the gap between commitments and reality. Doing so requires governments to place greater emphasis on human rights as the basis underpinning such commitments and to ensure equal access to education.
And Fourth is the Impacts
Education leads to a plethora of development: improves economy, reduces poverty and creates a spillover of political and economic involvement that creates social change across generations.
Roudi-Fahimi and Moghadam 03 http://www.prb.org...[x]nDevelopingSocietyFemaleEducationintheMiddleEastandNorthAfrica.aspx
Education is a key strategy for reducing poverty. Countries with high gender gaps in educational attainment tend to be less competitive. Various global trends pose special challenges to wom[x]n who are illiterate or have limited education. Increases in girls' secondary school enrollment are associated with increases in wom[x]n's participation in national income. Educated wom[x]n are more politically active and better informed about their legal rights and how to exercise them.
The patriarchal nature of international relations exiles other modes of thought and appropriates those it deems Other.
Ling 07 "Said's Exile: Strategic Insights for Postcolonial Feminists"
Understandings of home and exile apply to International Relations. This analogy ferrets from IR those "erasures and violences" that made the field possible. To produce new schools of thought that speak to world politics from the perspective of those outside of yet intertwined with the West. Yet the House of IR exiles them from public, formal acknowledgement. The House presumes that "they" want to be just like "us", and not that "we" are indebted to "them".
The exclusion of the other seems inevitable because we no longer see it and constantly endorse it through our every day patriarchal assumptions; but the feminist struggle becomes a tool for liberation and giving the "other" a social and political voice.
Calloni 3 http://ejw.sagepub.com...
Feminism emancipated itself from "wom[x]n" as the classical, metaphysical "other". There is an epistemological and political distinction between femininity, the "other" of the classical subject and a feminist subject, who wants to act, to have a social and political impact, to make thus a difference in society. The crisis is a crisis of the centre not of the periphery. It is the centre that needs to interrogate itself. This political subject stands in splendid isolation.
1.Ask if I meet your interp in CX, this allows great substantive debate and is good for education, grant me an auto I meet if it isn"t checked
2.Aff comes first in the debate, key to education and is a prereq to theory
3.Only aff RVIs on T/Theory A) Strat skew, they have more time B)Discourages bad theory which hurts clash.
1) So what you are saying is that, in order to achieve wom[x]n's rights, we should institute better education in the Middle East?
Value: Subsidiarity " Any function should be fulfilled by the smallest capable unit
Criterion: A community of a higher order (centralized bureaucracies, or some other form of government larger than the community) should not interfere in the internal life of a community of a lower order, depriving the latter of its functions, but rather should support it in case of need and help to co-ordinate its activity with the activities of the rest of society, always with a view to the common good
Quote: "The main problem with capitalism is not that there are too many capitalists, rather there are too few." " G.K. Chesterton
1. Since the U.S. is already promoting democratic values through social media and most of the middle east has instituted democratic governments, the topic is referring to the definition of promote "to further the progress of (something, especially a cause, venture, or aim);" as provided by Oxford Dictionaries.
2. Because capitalism is inherently tied to democracy, the affirmative must prove the efficacy of capitalism as an economic system.
3. The affirmative must prove that the promotion will be effective.
Thesis: The United States ought to promote the economic system of distributism because distributism will fix a lot of social issues, thereby leading to greater societal welfare.
The fastest way to describe distributism is as follows. Imagine the abolitionist north of pre-industrial America. That is distributism. Another way to look at distributism is as follows.
Distributism is capitalism, except for one thing. In a distributist society, no one company can get large enough to effect more than a local sphere. This is achieved by putting a greater emphasis on family and private property and anti-trust legislation (the government not allowing a company to become to large). Families are likely to pass on businesses as well as partner with each other. Because each family will have a niche in the market carved out for them, they can afford to purchase their own tools. Because of this, a state will begin to run with the good parts of socialism while avoiding tyranny at the same time.
Contention 1: Distributism can Fix Societal Issues within the Status Quo
Subpoint A: Yemen
According to the Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of World Cultures (JWEWC), UXL Staff, 1999, there is a narcotic known as "qat" that is significantly hurting the Yemenite society. Farmers are putting significant amounts of land to use to grow this drug because it sells for more than food, men are spending more money and time chewing this drug than is sustainable, and this leads to women working to maintain the household under massive prejudice and economic strain. Distributism is a community oriented system. Because of this, the heads of the household will become more invested in the community or die out. Whichever end is achieved, there will no longer be "qat" dragging Yemen down.
Subpoint B: United Arab Emirates
According to the JWEWC, there is a large amount of civil tension in the UAE. In a community based system, tension will be alleviated over time, as opposed to the current, cutthroat, faux capitalistic system.
Subpoint C: Turkey
According to the JWEWC, rampant population growth is leading to high unemployment, inflation, and tax evasion. Switching to distributism would guarantee job security, in it of the fact that families would help provide for each other, and greater interest in the community, which, in turn, would lead to a greater likelihood to pay taxes.
Subpoint D: Syria
According to the JWEWC, the economy of Syria is struggling due to the country"s experience in a brain drain, that is to say that young people who are gifted are leaving the country to study and work without returning. In a distributist society the economic issues would be fixed due to a sudden influx of domestic labor due to people staying around for the stable unit of family. Keep in mind that capitalism originally caused this.
Subpoint E: Kuwait
According to the JWEWC there have been many major oil spills. Switching over to distributism would reduce these oil spills, because they were and are currently caused by capitalism.
Subpoint F: Israel
According to the JWEWC due to Israel"s recent formation, Israel is receiving a large population boost and is having issues allocating resources to their various programs. Distributism places a higher emphasis on the role of family in society. Resources would end up being flexibly allocated.
Contention 2: Distributism is an Easy System to Switch to
Islam, just like distributism, places an incredibly high emphasis on the family. Because of this, distributism will be incredibly easy to implement. Democracy is based on the individual rather than the family. It highly emphasizes individual rights before family, as opposed to distributism which emphasizes family, which naturally progresses to individual rights.
Contention 3: Distributism is Superior to Capitalism
Subpoint A: Capitalism is a Bad System
Let me offer you a quote, "There are no functioning examples of a capitalism which operates anywhere near its own principles; there couldn"t be, because the mortality rates are simply too high. Hence, capitalism always relies on government power and money to rescue it from its own excesses. Distrubitism goes from success to success. Capitalism goes from bailout to bailout" - John M"daille of the Imaginative Conservative, 2010.
Subpoint B: The United States Adopted Anti-Trust Legislation
Anti-Trust Legislation is legislation designed to keep corporations from ever becoming too large and too powerful. Legislation that breaks up monopolies is one example of anti-trust legislation. Distributism was based on the principal that no corporation should ever become out of control. Anti-Trust Legislation is inherently distributist. The largest capitalistic economy in the world has adopted parts of distributism to stay stable.
Meta A: Sherman Antitrust Act 1890
The Cornell University Law School Legal Information Institute, Wex Staff, Since 1992, states that "the Act further prohibits monopolization or attempts at monopolizing any aspect of interstate trade or commerce and makes the act a felony."
Meta B: Federal Trade Commission Act 1914
The Federal Trade Commission Act was created in 1914 and currently protects consumers and promotes competition. This is directly from the FTC website, FTC Staff, 2016 "The FTC protects consumers by stopping unfair, deceptive or fraudulent practices in the marketplace. We conduct investigations, sue companies and people that violate the law, develop rules to ensure a vibrant marketplace, and educate consumers and businesses about their rights and responsibilities." and "Competition in America is about price, selection, and service. It benefits consumers by keeping prices low and the quality and choice of goods and services high. By enforcing antitrust laws, the FTC helps ensure that our markets are open and free. The FTC will challenge anticompetitive mergers and business practices that could harm consumers by resulting in higher prices, lower quality, fewer choices, or reduced rates of innovation. We monitor business practices, review potential mergers, and challenge them when appropriate to ensure that the market works according to consumer preferences, not illegal practices."
My opponent's case revolves around one core concept: teaching democracy will lead to a better society. This concept is partially true. In the past, democracy has led to better societies. There is one core issue though. Most of these societies have succumbed to the corporate nature of the government, or made the government a giant corporation. If a system of distributism was implemented first, than we could promote democracy. We must first promote distributism to ready the society so that it doesn't fall into the same pitfalls as other countries have. That is why I must stand in the negative by starting with a distinct promotion of distributism.
2. What societal issues are you trying to fix (contention 1)?
2) The issues that I have outlined in my first contention are just that. They are a variety of issues that have been caused by capitalism. My goal in promoting distributism is to fix these issues. One example that I would like to focus on is that of Yemen. A narcotic, qat, that is in widespread use, has been grown commercially. Qat has maintained a significant grasp on the Yemense populous, specifically the men, since the introduction of machinery due to capitalism.. This has effected the country by having a large number of unproductive men. All of this leads to women, who can't obtain jobs that pay well due to the society, as the only working parents of traditionally large families. If distributism were implemented, then we would see the results of capitalism shrink back. This leads to a more stable society.
I concede my opponent's value, subsidiarity.
I concede my opponent's criterion.
I concede the thesis.
I concede the contentions.
Let's go to my case.
I specifically said, "If the neg doesn"t address gendered concerns, they function in a patriarchal norm. Reject their imminent silence on gendered violence and force them to justify the power relations they perpetuate. Defer Aff if they can"t justify the subject of their discourse." You automatically vote aff. Not once did my opponent talk about the wom[x]n in his case, nor his rebuttal against my own. My opponent functions in a patriarchal norm. You should already vote aff at this point.
My ROTB also goes untouched. The ROTB functions at a higher level than value/criterion. My opponent doesn't address patriarchy. I'm the only one talking about gendered concerns. Because my opponent doesn't talk about the patriarchy, you should automatically affirm.
These are the reasons that I win:
1) My opponent has conceded everything to me.
2) My opponent didn't defend his own case.
3) My case is topical to the whole middle east.
4) My case has a solution to a large variety of problems, not just that found in "wom[x]n's" rights.
5) My opponent literally conceded everything to me. (Yes, I'm repeating that)
I specifically said in my case, if the neg doesn't address gendered concerns, they function in a patriarchal norm. Reject the imminent silence on gendered violence and force them to justify the power relations they perpetuate. Defer AFF if they can't justify the subject of their discourse.
I do not believe my opponent has a good position to support since he functions in a patriarchal norm. I did not assume that he is in a patriarchal norm. My opponent conceded my role of the ballot and that specific line. Therefore, he does operate in a patriarchal norm.
My opponent conceded the role of the ballot, the highest level of framework. I'm the only one that addresses gendered concerns. All I ask was for the neg to engage in feminist discourse, and he didn't.
I apologize for this boring debate, but because my opponent functions in a gendered norm, you have to vote aff.
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