Well, when you were a child you wanted a job to make your own money so that you could get your own stuff. Plus nowadays there are many kids that cant support their family financially, so they may need to get a job to help out. Also when they enter the work environment they would be able to have experience.
1. Child development is a incredibly important thing at one age something simple can be nearly impossible for someone a few years younger. The stage concerning 14 year olds is adolescence (12-19) things that develop at this time is a sense of complexity of life, merging of sensory, logical, and aesthetic perception. They develop a self image. This is also a crucial time for developing study skills and time management skills learned when given adequate education.
2. They have been abused in the past because of their inability to fully question and change their environment, child soldiers believe what they are told.
They should be given every opportunity to succeed educationally and have plenty of free time to have friends and hobbies. My guess as to why 16 year olds (United State) are allowed to work was either culturally or like you said give them the ability to pitch in, in the past families relied on their kids wages to survive in times of depressions. With that said a country that provides a reasonable a safety net (welfare) should provide every family with a reasonable ability to make living wage.
I will respect your views but the thing about how education is more important then working, . First off , When they finally come to the age of 14 they will want and need more things to help them get through life. Also, the real issue is that what about college , the age for being able to have a job is 16 and then while your trying to get money togather for college you also have the stress of high school on you.
College aid and student loans are supposed to be programs that allow any student that has the ability to succeed in a college be able to attend college. While not perfect they work for a good deal. Also most jobs that would be available would be very labor intensive since education is such a important qualification for employers as seen by people who get out of high school and have a hard time finding a job that will go somewhere. Some 14 year old would be able to find a good job that allows them the benefits that you suggest but the vast majority would be pressured by their parents and find themselves unable to balance out the rest of their day with education and extra curricular which also enables students of that age to develop skills necessary for life.
Also now that i think about it 16 is when you are able to start driving transportation would be a problem for those who are younger. And of course helping out where you can with family businesses or small entrepreneurial practices like cutting lawns is fine and a good answer to your points since it's able to be flexible and not take over a young child's life.
If you ever really looked into student loans you will see that the teenager would have to pay of the loans that they got from the college.When the student of the college gets a loan they will need to pay back the school after that semester that they are doing.Also, some of the families cant afford getting loans because of how poor they are, with the transportation issue they could always get s ride from some one or they can have their own permit on a 4-wheeler or a golf cart, they really dont need a drivers license.
I'm in college and have to deal with this number of times a year as far as i know no student is able to be denied loans since it comes in when their credit score is still new and unused. The system is set up that between scholarships and financial aid most students especially with a good gpa and sat should have no problem paying for college.
The money you're talking about a young uneducated worker getting is minimum wage if you worked full time (60 hours a week about the same amount as school) something no student in school will be able to keep up with you would have allocated $15,000 in a year assuming your state has a ~8$ minimum wage in Georgia where i am it's 5.15$. It's a good deal to a kid who doesn't pay for bills or meals but when you try and put it towards tuition you won't keep it for long. since the average cost to pay for a school year is around $32,405 at private colleges and $9,410 for state residents at public colleges. My personal scholarships and Federal aid for a private college pay for about 30,000$ a year which would take two years of a 14 years working a minimum wage job in some states.
Those transportation options create issues like now you take time and gas money away from family and i don't know where you are from but a golf cart is not street legal in many cities and suburbs. It would not be viable transportation it also doesn't handle bad weather.