The Instigator
A.WitherspoonVI
Pro (for)
Winning
11 Points
The Contender
WilliamofOckham
Con (against)
Losing
0 Points

The Cultural Revolution Benefited China And The World.

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Post Voting Period
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after 3 votes the winner is...
A.WitherspoonVI
Voting Style: Open Point System: 7 Point
Started: 5/9/2013 Category: Politics
Updated: 3 years ago Status: Post Voting Period
Viewed: 4,512 times Debate No: 33530
Debate Rounds (4)
Comments (0)
Votes (3)

 

A.WitherspoonVI

Pro

1st round is for acceptance. Debate is open to anyone.

Benifiet: Something that promotes or enhances well-being.

Cultural Revolution: The social-political movement that took place between 1966 and 1976 in China, led by Chairman Mao Tse Dong.
WilliamofOckham

Con

I accept.
Debate Round No. 1
A.WitherspoonVI

Pro


The Cultural Revolution was a gain for China and the world as it proved a lesson to revolutionary thinkers on combating liberalism and the continuation of class struggle even within a socialist nation on the path to Communism.
I. The Cultural Revolution was the solution to a series of unfortunate realisations made my Mao.

A. The authority figures like Liu and Deng that rose to prominence in the 1950's and 60's seeked rather then keeping China on the revolutionary path towards Communism were in fact creating a privileged Urban middle class. Deng himself would go onto dismantle Communism and make China the world center for cheap labor just a few years after Mao's death. Thus under direction of Mao and his allies and universal revolutionary principals the youth rose up and fought the forming revisionist ruling class. All authority outside of Mao and his chief allies were questioned, denounced and even in some cases attacked. This struggle against revisionism and reactionaries which formed within the authority not only gave the millions of Chinese youth revolutionary but further synthesized truly revolutionary thinkers and leaders against revisionism towards Communism.
In addition to the prominence of revisionists in government there was the issue of the surviving influence of the old system which still existed in the form of Confucianism, Capitalism and materialism.

B. Confucianism is the doctrine that previously served Dynastic China for thousands of years. Much like Maoism it was a social however it greatly contradicted socialism and was above all else Sexist. Men dominated over women, they could divorce them whenever they please and marry multiple brides. Conversely Women could not legally apply for a divorce nor could they marry plurally. In addition Women were restricted in labor by gender roles. During and after the cultural revolution all adherents and private proponents of Confucianism were defeated and women were liberated and given the same rights and recognition as men.

C. Imperialism was a threat to Revolutionary China from the moment of conception. Before the Mao liberated China in 1949 the previous regimes of corruption and incompetence were propped up by foreign money and support and the people rigorously exploited in the name of Imperialism. The Chinese Island Of Taiwan, to paraphrase what Mao once said Mao once said was said was itself under foreign Imperialism. During the Civil War it was the United States that backed the corrupt Nationalist government to crush Mao, but as soon as US aide ceased the Nationalist armies began to falter against Communist forces. Other Communist movements like in Italy, Guatemala and Bolivia faced decimation by the hands of their own country men by International capitalist and nervous liberal government. The Cultural Revolution assured that at least while Maoists lead the nation no foreign government could implant another conflict to destroy Socialism.

D. Materialism was harshly lashed out on during the Cultural Revolution,for example as depicted in the Chinese propaganda film "Never forget" We see the story of a young man who is from a working class however he neglects his duty and turns to material comfort rather then revolutionary selflessness. He is encouraged privately by his mother-in-law who in the end is and the young man returns to the struggle of the proletariat. In addition to the message of the film the fashion of the Cultural revolution is a testament to the full-fledged rejection of Materialism. In the United States, Europe or Japan one can find individuals spending thousands of dollars on the trending outfits that catch their fancy while many face poverty. Lets take that a step further, In these contemporary Bourgeoisie societies even the poor spend considerable amounts of their money the trending styles and fashion for which they can afford. During the Cultural Revolution it is irrefutable that from the mechanic to the Red guard to Mao to the Peasant dress was simple, plain and functional. The Cultural Revolution freed the people from the materialistic obsession over clothing which has become a multi-billion trans national consumer market functioning at the expense foreign exploited labor.

E. Summary The Cultural Revolution via a mobilized youth, propaganda and class struggle purged Chinese society of reactionary elements. This resulted in Woman's liberation, the stemming of Imperialism, and liberation from capitalist materialism.
II.Benefit to the world. The benefit to the world is the observation that Socialism that is not coupled with a Cultural Revolution leads to stagnation and leads to the socialist society itself under threat from old reactionary elements as-well as foreign Imperialism. The Soviet Union and Warsaw Pact nations never had a true Cultural Revolution and as a result suffered a cultural stagnation. The severity of a cultural stagnation is absolute, if your nation is not socially evolving then you are doomed as you leave the people no were to turn but to the Bourgeoisie society. Chile, Guatemala, Cuba, Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria, Libya, East Germany, and the Soviet Union were all socialist nations but did not form a legitimate cultural revolution all with the exception of Cuba have fallen into the clutches of liberalism and free market capitalism. So I affirm that for mankind to move forward to a world free of capitalism and individual excess in which we all work together for the collective good it can only be achieved with Cultural Revolutions to continue the class struggle and produce in fact an entirely new culture founded on Socialism rather then reactionary and decedent models which have plagued mankind since the advent of society.

Thank you and good luck.

Sources:
https://www.youtube.com...
Defense of the Cultural Revolution by comtemporary Maoist author Jason Unruhe
http://www.marxists.org...
The Selected Works Of Chairmen Mao in particular Quotations from Charimen Mao(Section 6)
https://www.youtube.com...
"Morning Sun" Documentary on the Cultural Revolution, Liberaly biased but the clips from "Never Forget" potrays the
society of the period

WilliamofOckham

Con

1. Deaths and Murders

Many people who were targets of 'struggle' could no longer bear the stress and committed suicide. In August and September 1966, there were 1,772 people murdered in Beijing alone. In Shanghai there were 704 suicides and 534 deaths related to the Cultural Revolution in September. In Wuhan there were 62 suicides and 32 murders during the same period.1

According to "Mao: The Unknown Story", an estimated 100,000 people died in one of the worst factional struggles in Guangxi in January"April 1968, Zheng Yi, in his controversial book "Scarlet Memorial: Tales Of Cannibalism In Modern China", alleged the "systematic killing and cannibalization of individuals in the name of political revolution and 'class struggle'" among the Zhuang people in Wuxuan County, Guangxi, during that period.2, 3, 4

In Mao's Last Revolution (2006), Roderick MacFarquhar and Michael Schoenhals assert that in rural China alone some 36 million people were persecuted, of whom between 750,000 and 1.5 million were killed, with roughly the same number permanently injured. In Mao: The Unknown Story, Jung Chang and Jon Halliday claim that as many as 3 million people died in the violence of the Cultural Revolution. Sociologist Daniel Chirot claims that around 100 million people suffered and at least one million people, and perhaps as many as 20 million, died in the Cultural Revolution.5, 6, 7

2. Elimination of Knowledge

As Mao became more powerful, he wished to suppress knowledge and understanding. In the process, he wiped out almost all education, and forcibly moved young people to the countryside, where they were forced to abandon all knowledge in the face of Mao"s teachings. This had an extremely negative effect on China for many reasons. Agriculture declined, factories closed, and all things that required complex skills were basically abandoned. This was disastrous.8

It was because of the fact that almost everyone became manipulated with the Ideology of Maoism that led to making wrong judgments such as denouncing and accusing people in a wrong way. People actually started to turn against each other for no particular reason. China eventually turned into mass chaos that whirled much out of control, people were persecuted, churches, mosques, temples, books, and ancient scrolls were burned down. This Cultural Revolution almost made the Chinese Culture and traditions disappear altogether.9

3. The Effect on the World

A depressed China had effects for the rest of the world as well. If China was stronger during this time, the world may have been in a better place with a stronger China.

Works Cited:

1 MacFarquhar, Roderick and Schoenhals, Michael. Mao's Last Revolution. Harvard University Press, 2006. pp. 124.
2 Steven Bela Vardy and Agnes Huszar Vardy. Cannibalism in Stalin's Russia and Mao's China. Duquesne University, East European Quarterly, XLI, No.2, 2007.
3 Yue, Gang (1999). The Mouth That Begs: Hunger, Cannibalism, and the Politics of Eating in Modern China. Duke University Press. pp. 228"230.
4 Chen, Xiaomei (2002). Acting the Right Part: Political Theatre and Popular Drama in Contemporary China. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 30"31.
5 MacFarquhar and Schoenhals, pp. 262.
6 Chang, Jung and Halliday, Jon. Mao: The Unknown Story. Jonathan Cape, London, 2005. pp.569.
7 Daniel Chirot. Modern tyrants: the power and prevalence of evil in our age. Princeton University Press, 1996. pp 198.
8 Harding, Harry. [1987] (1987). China's Second Revolution: Reform after Mao. Brookings Institution Press.
9 http://historyday.crf-usa.org...
http://en.wikipedia.org...
Debate Round No. 2
A.WitherspoonVI

Pro

1. A revolution is not a dinner party, or writing an essay, or painting a picture, or doing embroidery; it cannot be so refined, so leisurely and gentle, so temperate, kind, courteous, restrained and magnanimous. A revolution is an insurrection, an act of violence by which one class overthrows another. -Mao

20 Million by your figures died in the Great Proletariat Cultural Revolution.
I will actually agree with your estimate and I posit that those losses were worth the gains made.
The Cultural Revolution seeked to finally defeat a 4000 year old cultural of expliotation.
The society which Mao seeked to finally bring an end to just a century before had massacared
in a single a rebellion known as the Taiping.
This is the same society that punished sons for reporting their fathers to the government for stealing as
the Confucican society placed family above government.
The same society that from the 1840's on could not be rid of an Opium addiction that transcended all regimes.
The society whose argicultural structure explioted millions of peasants.

This society was the Chinese society that existed before Communism and still lived in the hearts and minds of many.
The 20 million that died represent a mere 0.025% of the 800 Million chinese that lived during the Cultural Revlution.
At the gain of finally bringing an end to the society that billions of living and dead victims of expliotation and the more then one hundred million Taipings and Communists that given thier lives over the past century to finally be free of it.

Furthermore your claim of Cannibalism has no weight as the erotic novelist Z. Yi who had written that, himself soley asked the questions for the interviews in which he claims supports his own claims. You can read this assertion here in professor Xiaomei's book on pages 30 and 31 http://books.google.com....

2.
You claim that Mao's Cultural Revolution "Eliminated Knowledge". Mao in reality was washing away the surviving threats of the old society, thus he was justified. But more worrying is the claim you make here:

As Mao became more powerful, he wished to suppress knowledge and understanding. In the process, he wiped out almost all education, and forcibly moved young people to the countryside, where they were forced to abandon all knowledge in the face of Mao"s teachings. This had an extremely negative effect on China for many reasons. Agriculture declined, factories closed, and all things that required complex skills were basically abandoned. This was disastrous.

In all areas of Chinese society, people were called on to reject
narrow self-interest and embrace their collective interests. “Serve the people” was more than a slogan. Students turned away from chasing privileged careers to use their knowledge to serve the workers and peasants, and doctors left the cities and settled in the countryside. Political study was a part of daily life using a variety of materials. The 312 page Red Book introduced hundreds of millions of people in China and around the world to Marxism-Leninism and Mao’s political thinking.

• There was a vast expansion of education in the countryside, which
Mobo Gao and Dongping Han describe in their books from first hand experience. The schools had the goal of producing graduates who were both “red and expert.” Students were expected to gain knowledge and skills that could be used to solve society’s pressing problems. Textbooks and teaching methods at all levels were changed to discourage rote learning, encourage critical thinking and promote socialist values. Nationwide admission exams were abolished, making it possible for many more workers, peasants and soldiers to attend the universities.

• One of the most dynamic innovations of the Cultural Revolution
was the system of “barefoot doctors” that helped narrow the gap in health services between rural and urban areas. By the mid-1970s, more than a million of these paramedics were working in the countryside. Many of them were educated urban youth who were part of the movement “down to the villages.” Their guidelines were to place prevention of diseases first, and to combine mental and manual labor. Their slogan was “calluses on hands, mud on feet, medicine kit on shoulder, poor and lower-middle peasants in mind.” -Internationaly Published Marxist Author and Maosit Commentator Jason Unruhe
http://maoistrebelnews.wordpress.com...

3. "A Depressed China" Please explain this and also how exactly China would have been in a better or "stronger" place in the society before the cultural revolution.

Also I would like CON to please adress my opening argument and refute/accept my points.
Thank you.

WilliamofOckham

Con

I am intrigued by my opponent's arguments, and wish to learn more about this subject. Pro seems to have made me second guess my arguments. Good job, and thank you.
Debate Round No. 3
A.WitherspoonVI

Pro

Thank you, you may use the final round for a rebuttal. Take all time needed.
WilliamofOckham

Con

No, I mean you've made me question my very position and case. I now support your side. Thank you for your time and thanks for giving me the chance to rethink one of my beliefs. I urge a vote for pro.
Debate Round No. 4
No comments have been posted on this debate.
3 votes have been placed for this debate. Showing 1 through 3 records.
Vote Placed by amey 3 years ago
amey
A.WitherspoonVIWilliamofOckhamTied
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Total points awarded:50 
Reasons for voting decision: pro's arguments were so good that con could not answer them ,therefore pro wins
Vote Placed by vmpire321 3 years ago
vmpire321
A.WitherspoonVIWilliamofOckhamTied
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Reasons for voting decision: Con urged me to vote pro. - Alt
Vote Placed by thett3 3 years ago
thett3
A.WitherspoonVIWilliamofOckhamTied
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Reasons for voting decision: Con urged me to vote Pro