Debate Rounds (5)
In October 1948, after the McDonald brothers realized that most of their profits came from selling hamburgers, they closed down their successful carhop drive-in to establish a streamlined system with a simple menu which consisted of only hamburgers, cheeseburgers, potato chips, coffee, soft drinks, and apple pie. After the first year, potato chips and pie were swapped out for french fries and milkshakes. The carhops were eliminated to make the new restaurant a self-service operation. The brothers took great care in setting up their kitchen like an assembly line to ensure maximum efficiency. The restaurant's name was changed again, this time to simply "McDonald's," and reopened on December 12, 1948.
In 1952, the brothers decided they needed an entirely new building in order to achieve two goals: further efficiency improvements, and a more eye-catching appearance. They collected recommendations for an architect and interviewed at least four altogether, finally choosing Stanley Clark Meston, an architect practicing in nearby Fontana, in the fall. The brothers and Meston worked together closely. They achieved the extra efficiencies they needed by, among other things, drawing the actual measurements of every piece of equipment in chalk on a tennis court behind the McDonald house (with Meston's assistant Charles Fish). The design achieved a high level of noticeability thanks to gleaming surfaces of red and white ceramic tile, stainless steel, brightly colored sheet metal, and glass; pulsing red, white, yellow, and green neon; and last but not least, two 25-foot yellow sheet-metal arches trimmed in neon, called "golden arches" even at the design stage. A third, smaller arch sign at the roadside hosted a pudgy character in a chef's hat, known as Speedee, striding across the top, trimmed in animated neon. Further marketing techniques were implemented to change Mc Donald's from formerly a sit down restaurant to a fast food chain, they used such things as turning off the heating to prevent people wanting to stay so long, fixed and angled seating so the customer would sit over their food promoting them to eat faster, spreading the seats further apart so being less of a socialble place to dine in, and giving their customers branded cone shaped cups forcing them to hold their drink whilst eating which would speed up the eating process, many other companies followed Mc Donald's strategies to turn their own restaurants into fast food establishments including, Burgerking, Castle and Subway.
In late 1952, with only a rendering of Meston's design in hand, the brothers began seeking franchisees. Their first franchisee was Neil Fox, a distributor for General Petroleum Corporation. Fox's stand, the first with Meston's golden arches design, opened in May 1953 at 4050 North Central Avenue at Indian School Road in Phoenix, Arizona. Their second franchisee was the team of Fox's brother-in-law Roger Williams and Burdette "Bud" Landon, both of whom also worked for General Petroleum. Williams and Landon opened their stand on 18 August 1953 at 10207 Lakewood Boulevard in Downey, California. Today the Downey stand has the distinction of being the oldest surviving McDonald's restaurant. The Downey stand was never required to comply with the McDonald's Corporation's remodeling and updating requests over the years because it was franchised not by the McDonald's Corporation, but by the McDonald brothers themselves to Williams and Landon. (Recognizing its historic and nostalgic value, in 1990 the McDonald's Corporation acquired the stand and rehabilitated it to a modern but nearly original condition, and then built an adjacent museum and gift shop to commemorate the site.)
In 1954, Ray Kroc, a seller of Prince Castle brand Multimixer milkshake machines, learned that the McDonald brothers were using eight of his machines in their San Bernardino restaurant. His curiosity was piqued, and he went to San Bernardino to take a look at the McDonalds' restaurant. He was joined by good friend Charles Lewis who had suggested to Kroc several improvements to the McDonald's burger recipe.
Believing the McDonalds' formula was a ticket to success, Kroc suggested they franchise their restaurants throughout the country. The brothers were skeptical, however, that the self-service approach could succeed in colder, rainier climates; furthermore, their thriving business in San Bernardino, and franchises already operating or planned, made them reluctant to risk a national venture. Kroc offered to take the major responsibility for setting up the new franchises elsewhere. He returned to his home outside of Chicago with rights to set up McDonald's restaurants throughout the country, except in a handful of territories in California and Arizona already licensed by the McDonald brothers. The brothers were to receive one-half of one percent of gross sales. Kroc's first McDonald's restaurant opened on April 15, 1955, at 400 North Lee Street in Des Plaines, Illinois, near Chicago. The Des Plaines interior and exterior was painted by master painter Eugene Wright, who owned Wright's Decorating Service. Eugene was asked to come up with a color scheme and he chose yellow and white, with dark brown and red being secondary trim colors. Those colors would go on to become the colors of all McDonald's franchises. (The Des Plaines location was demolished in 1984 after many remodels.) Kroc incorporated his company as McDonald's Systems, Inc., which he would later rename McDonald's Corporation.
Once the Des Plaines restaurant had become operational, Kroc sought franchisees for his McDonald's chain. The first snag came quickly. In 1956 he discovered that the McDonald brothers had licensed the franchise rights for Cook County, Illinois to the Frejlach Ice Cream Company. Kroc was incensed that the McDonalds had not informed him of this arrangement. He purchased the rights back for $25,000, five times what the Frejlacks had originally paid, and pressed forward. McDonald's grew slowly for its first three years. By 1958, there were 34 restaurants. In 1959, however, Kroc opened 68 new restaurants, bringing the total to 102 locations.
Battlefield series games usually focus on large, online multiplayer battles, but the series will contain a new Cops-vs-Robbers theme with the release of Battlefield Hardline. This new title will likely not have nearly the emphasis on piloting vehicles as previous titles have, yet there will still be a number of vehicles as well as team-based infantry combat. Playing in squads has also become a major element of games in the series.
Since Battlefield 2, all games in the series centrally record online statistics for each player allowing the players to receive rank promotions and weapon unlocks based on their statistics as well as awards such as medals, ribbons and pins.
A class system has been present within all the Battlefield games. Each class features a different type of primary weapon along with different equipment, differentiating roles on the battlefield.
The ability to melee other players with a knife has always been present in Battlefield games. Also since Battlefield 2142, the series has included an award of dog tags for each player killed using a knife.
Main article: List of Battlefield video games
Titles in the Battlefield series
WinOS XPS2Xbox360PS3PS4Xbox One
2002Refractor 1Battlefield 1942YesYesNoNoNoNoNoNo
2003Refractor 1`32; Battlefield 1942: The Road to RomeYesYesNoNoNoNoNoNo
2003Refractor 1`32; Battlefield 1942: Secret Weapons of WWIIYesYesNoNoNoNoNoNo
2004Refractor 1Battlefield VietnamYesNoNoNoNoNoNoNo
2005Refractor 2Battlefield 2YesNoNoNoNoNoNoNo
2005RenderWareBattlefield 2: Modern CombatNoNoYesYesYesNoNoNo
2005Refractor 2`32; Battlefield 2: Special ForcesYesNoNoNoNoNoNoNo
2006Refractor 2`32; Battlefield 2: Euro ForceYesNoNoNoNoNoNoNo
2006Refractor 2`32; Battlefield 2: Armored FuryYesNoNoNoNoNoNoNo
2006Refractor 2Battlefield 2142YesYesNoNoNoNoNoNo
2007Refractor 2`32; Battlefield 2142: Northern StrikeYesNoNoNoNoNoNoNo
2008Frostbite 1.0Battlefield: Bad CompanyNoNoNoNoYesYesNoNo
2009Refractor 2Battlefield HeroesYesNoNoNoNoNoNoNo
2009Frostbite 1.5Battlefield 1943NoNoNoNoYesYesNoNo
2010Frostbite 1.5Battlefield: Bad Company 2YesNoNoNoYesYesNoNo
2010Refractor 2Battlefield OnlineYesNoNoNoNoNoNoNo
2010Frostbite 1.5`32; Battlefield: Bad Company 2: VietnamYesNoNoNoYesYesNoNo
2011Refractor 2Battlefield Play4FreeYesNoNoNoNoNoNoNo
2011Frostbite 2Battlefield 3YesNoNoNoYesYesNoNo
2011Frostbite 2`32; Battlefield 3: Back to KarkandYesNoNoNoYesYesNoNo
2012Frostbite 2`32; Battlefield 3: Close QuartersYesNoNoNoYesYesNoNo
2012Frostbite 2`32; Battlefield 3: Armored KillYesNoNoNoYesYesNoNo
2012Frostbite 2`32; Battlefield 3: AftermathYesNoNoNoYesYesNoNo
2013Frostbite 2`32; Battlefield 3: End GameYesNoNoNoYesYesNoNo
2013Frostbite 3Battlefield 4YesNoNoNoYesYesYesYes
2013Frostbite 3`32; Battlefield 4: China RisingYesNoNoNoYesYesYesYes
2013/2014"Frostbite 3`32; Battlefield 4: Second AssaultYesNoNoNoYesYesYesYes
2014Frostbite 3`32; Battlefield 4: Naval StrikeYesNoNoNoYesYesYesYes
2014Frostbite 3`32; Battlefield 4: Dragon's TeethYesNoNoNoYesYesYesYes
2014Frostbite 3`32; Battlefield 4: Final StandYesNoNoNoYesYesYesYes
2015Frostbite 3`32; Battlefield 4: Weapons CrateYesNoNoNoYesYesYesYes
2015Frostbite 3`32; Battlefield 4: Night OperationsYesNoNoNoYesYesYesYes
2015Frostbite 3`32; Battlefield 4: Community OperationsYesNoNoNoYesYesYesYes
2015Frostbite 3`32; Battlefield 4: Legacy OperationsYesNoNoNoNoNoYesYes
2015Frostbite 3Battlefield HardlineYesNoNoNoYesYesYesYes
2015Frostbite 3`32; Battlefield Hardline: Criminal ActivityYesNoNoNoYesYesYesYes
2015Frostbite 3`32; Battlefield Hardline: RobberyYesNoNoNoYesYesYesYes
2016Frostbite 3`32; Battlefield Hardline: GetawayYesNoNoNoYesYesYesYes
2016Frostbite 3`32; Battlefield Hardline: BetrayalYesNoNoNoYesYesYesYes
`32; DLC located directly below the title it was released for.
" Was released exclusively for Xbox One in 4th quarter 2013, then was released for the remaining platforms in 1st quarter 2014.
Aggregate review scores
As of April 1, 2015.
Battlefield 1942(PC) 89
Battlefield Vietnam(PC) 84
Battlefield 2(PC) 91
Battlefield 2: Modern Combat(Xbox) 80
Battlefield 2142(PC) 80
Battlefield: Bad Company(PS3) 84
Battlefield Heroes(PC) 69
Battlefield 1943(PS3) 84
Battlefield: Bad Company 2(X360) 88
Battlefield Play4Free(PC) 68
Battlefield 3(PC) 89
Battlefield 4(PS4) 86
Battlefield Hardline(PS4) 73
Battlefield 1942 was released on September 10, 2002, using the Refractor game engine, also introducing the "Conquest" gameplay mode, in which players fought for "control points" throughout the map. Two expansion packs were released in 2003, Battlefield 1942: The Road to Rome and Battlefield 1942: Secret Weapons of WWII.
Battlefield Vietnam, released in 2004, moved the setting to the Vietnam War, and was built on an updated Refractor engine with various gameplay improvements, such as the ability to fire personal weapons while seated in vehicles, and supporting dense foliage.
The 2005 release Battlefield 2 takes place in the modern day, depicting a war between the United States fighting China and the fictional Middle Eastern Coalition (MEC). Despite it requiring numerous patches due to a large number of bugs and glitches in the game upon its release, it was a large commercial success, selling more than 2,250,000 copies worldwide, by July 2006. One expansion pack, Special Forces, which added Russia, exclusive missions, and new weapons and gadgets, and two booster packs, Armored Fury (adding three new battles in the USA) and Euro Force (adding the European Union), were also released. A similar game called Battlefield 2: Modern Combat was released for consoles, with a larger single player mode but limited online play.
Battlefield 2142 was released in 2006, taking place during a global ice age in the 22nd century. While most of it is graphically similar to Battlefield 2, it introduced a variety of equippable items to unlock and battles between two giant "Titan" airships. The Northern Strike expansion pack was later released, adding new maps, vehicles, and a new game mode. Its use of in-game advertising was controversial among players.
Battlefield: Bad Company, released in 2008, followed the "B" Company's escapades and their search for hidden gold. This new Battlefield game had a variety of vehicles for land, air and sea. It had a new destruction system that allowed the player to break and destroy environments, based on a new game engine named Frostbite, which replaced the Refractor engine used in earlier releases (with the exception of Battlefield 2: Modern Combat, which used RenderWare.
In 2009, EA released two download-only games, Battlefield Heroes, a free-to-play Refractor 2 engine game, supported by advertising and micropayments and Battlefield 1943, a Frostbite engine game, released in July 2009, for Xbox 360 and PlayStation 3, and was scheduled for release in Q1 2010, for PCs, but was cancelled.
In 2010, a sequel to Battlefield: Bad Company, Battlefield: Bad Company 2, was released, involving "B" Company's search for an EMP weapon (called a scalar weapon ingame). It had a larger, and arguably better multiplayer than its predecessor "Bad Company", with updated graphics and new realistic effects (e.g. bullet-drop). It also featured a "VIP" system of content distribution where player with VIP codes gain early access to new maps. DICE also released an expansion for Bad Company 2, Battlefield: Bad Company 2: Vietnam, setting the game in the Vietnam war.
Battlefield 3 was announced in 2009, and in 2010 it was confirmed that gamers who pre-ordered Medal of Honor (2010) Limited Edition or who pre-ordered from origin (in the U.S. only) would receive beta access to Battlefield 3 48 hours before the open beta was released. On February 4, 2011, the first teaser trailer for the game was revealed, with a preliminary release in the Fall of 2011. Among the features that remain in the game are Jets and the ability to go prone. The game still allows 64 (on the PC) players as in all previous Battlefield titles, though the consoles allow for 24 player matches. The Battlefield 3 Beta was released on September 29, 2011. Battlefield 3 was released on October 25, 2011 and has received almost unanimous high review scores and has received awards from IGN.
On November 5, 2010, EASY Studios announced a follow-up to its free-to-play Battlefield Heroes, Battlefield Play4Free. EASY develops the free-to-play variants of Battlefield. Its latest offering gives players the same free-to-play pricing structure of Heroes, while still off
Bill Cosby in 1972.
Bill Cosby in 1972.Credit Associated Press
Fat Albert and friends from the animated series "Fat Albert and the Cosby Kids."
Fat Albert and friends from the animated series "Fat Albert and the Cosby Kids."Credit Shout! Factory
These were among the characters that Mr. Cosby played on "Fat Albert and the Cosby Kids," the animated series he created based on his own upbringing in the housing projects of Philadelphia, and which ran on CBS and in syndication from 1972 through 1985. A combination of slapstick comedy and gentle moralizing (and a catchy opening theme song), "Fat Albert" was Mr. Cosby"s Trojan horse to cut through the vast cartoon wasteland and teach children about basic values and issues of the day, in episodes that dealt with the consequences of cheating on tests, cutting school and confronting gang violence. The series helped Mr. Cosby earn a doctorate in education, and presaged how he would later use his celebrity"s perch to be a more full-throated critic of ills he sees in black culture and society.
Fat Albert has been less vocal in recent years, but he and his junkyard gang are returning in "Fat Albert and the Cosby Kids: The Complete Series," a DVD boxed set that Shout! Factory will release on June 25, collecting all 110 episodes of the animated show. Mr. Cosby spoke recently to ArtsBeat about the creation of the "Fat Albert" cartoon series and its characters, what it represented to him and why he believes it is still relevant. These are edited excerpts from that conversation.
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