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Art History Weekly

Peepette
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2/10/2016 7:25:48 PM
Posted: 10 months ago
Each week a few pieces of art will be presented with a bit of historical background. As weeks progress the art moves forward in history. Hopefully, what's presented will foster some conversation.

Week 1: Prehistoric Man and Cave Art

Early forms of art prior to 70,000 BCE have yet to be found and likely will remain unknown due to the likely materials used such as wood and soft stone.

One of the oldest pieces of art by done by man was found in the Blombos Cave, Africa dated at 70,000 BCE; an engraved ochre stone with carved rounded notches with cross hatched lines that depict elongated rectangles.
http://www.debate.org...

In India there's the Auditorium Caves Bhimbetka, dating from 290,000 BCE through 5,000 BCE. There are a series of caves totaling 243 in number located on Bhimbetka Hill alone. People occupied the site from the Paleolithic through Medieval times. The petroglyphs during the upper Paleolithic period depict stick figures of rhinos, bison and tigers done in ochre from haematite mixed with water or animal fat. Through the ages people inhabiting the cave added to the artwork providing a time line of art.

https://www.youtube.com...

In 2012, the Spanish El Castillo caves uncovered the oldest known stenciled hand prints and simple disc shapes created by early man.... or not. The site is dated at 40,800 years old, during a time when Homo sapiens and Neanderthals occupied the area. Proof is inconclusive toward Neanderthals authorship. Recent Neanderthal excavation sites have uncovered pigments used for body paint and small art objects; their presence leans toward plausibility. The controversy will remain for a while until sophisticated date testing is completed on wall samples. No bones or tools were found at the location for dating purposes.
http://www.debate.org...

The Maros cave site on the island of Sulawesi, Indonesia, 40, 000 year old art pieces were dated as recently as 2014. This recent discovery rewrote history expanding the range of ancient cave painting far beyond what was known. Here depicted are hand stencils and a dwarfed bovid, a native animal of Indonesia. The hand stencils are very similar to the ones found in the Spanish El Castillo caves. It is leading archaeologist to theorize that cave art quite possibly was brought out of Africa and was left along human migratory routes.
http://www.debate.org...

The French Chauvet cave paintings from 30,000 and 33,000 BCE years ago are considered the first true pieces figurative art done by early man. Chauvet's paintings were unlike previous cave paintings found and altered perceptions of Paleolithic Man. Of the over 400 works, many showed a high level of technique and sophistication with use of composition, shading, perspective and anatomical correctness. In addition to using of red ochre and charcoal as a medium, the artists used engraving to accentuate lines and to depict volume.
https://www.youtube.com...
Buddamoose
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2/10/2016 7:55:14 PM
Posted: 10 months ago
The first three examples are certainly basic, but show a high level of awareness and intelligence imo. Plus perhaps a curiosity and awareness in preserving some sort of record through hands. Maybe the usage of the hands was a means to symbolize the members of the tribe at the time? A record of sorts.

The Chauvat(?) cave paintings are absolutely stunning imho. The level of artistry is mind-blowing to me whenever I look at it. To think sapiens of this lower intelligence were able to depict life with such vivid imagery is always to me astonishing. It really shows that at an instinctual level, we wish to preserve depictions and records of our lives and the world we live in.
"Reality is an illusion created due to a lack of alcohol"
-Airmax1227

"You were the moon all this time, and he was always there to make you shine."

"Was he the sun?"

"No honey, he was the darkness"

-Kazekirion
Buddamoose
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2/10/2016 8:01:57 PM
Posted: 10 months ago
The wildlife depicted in the Chauvet caves is also astonishing. Hyenas, Bison, animals that now are not even found in that area. It really makes one wonder what caused this centralization of wildlife into certain areas, and actually imho, lends credence to flood myths.

The flood myth, btw, is believed to be a reference to the creation of the Mediterranean Sea long ago. When the side of the basin inevitably collapsed at the Pillars of Hercules, the Atlantic Ocean rushed into it, creating the sea that is around today. This also would have created the different climates, as a body of water such as the Mediterranean would alter climates regions around it imho.
"Reality is an illusion created due to a lack of alcohol"
-Airmax1227

"You were the moon all this time, and he was always there to make you shine."

"Was he the sun?"

"No honey, he was the darkness"

-Kazekirion
Buddamoose
Posts: 19,448
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2/10/2016 8:06:10 PM
Posted: 10 months ago
One thing that always leaves me questioning though, is the painting of the dots. I always wonder. What was that depicting? Was it a census count of sorts of members of the tribe perhaps? An unfinished depiction of an animal? A map of some sort? The dots do kind of look similar to the Western parts of Europe(Spain, Portugal, France, that area, plus Northern parts of Africa as well) as they look today, but only vaguely and loosely, so this to me is probably not the case. Maybe a map of tribal hunting grounds?

I'll always wonder what that specific piece was depicting or recording lol
"Reality is an illusion created due to a lack of alcohol"
-Airmax1227

"You were the moon all this time, and he was always there to make you shine."

"Was he the sun?"

"No honey, he was the darkness"

-Kazekirion
Buddamoose
Posts: 19,448
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2/10/2016 8:09:44 PM
Posted: 10 months ago
Nicely chosen topic btw, Peepette. This should definitely spur plenty of discussion :)
"Reality is an illusion created due to a lack of alcohol"
-Airmax1227

"You were the moon all this time, and he was always there to make you shine."

"Was he the sun?"

"No honey, he was the darkness"

-Kazekirion
Peepette
Posts: 1,238
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2/10/2016 8:11:49 PM
Posted: 10 months ago
At 2/10/2016 7:55:14 PM, Buddamoose wrote:
The first three examples are certainly basic, but show a high level of awareness and intelligence imo. Plus perhaps a curiosity and awareness in preserving some sort of record through hands. Maybe the usage of the hands was a means to symbolize the members of the tribe at the time? A record of sorts.

The Chauvat(?) cave paintings are absolutely stunning imho. The level of artistry is mind-blowing to me whenever I look at it. To think sapiens of this lower intelligence were able to depict life with such vivid imagery is always to me astonishing. It really shows that at an instinctual level, we wish to preserve depictions and records of our lives and the world we live in.

Some art historians as well as archaeologist feel the hand prints were done for no other reason than fun; after all kids still like doing this.
Buddamoose
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2/10/2016 8:20:13 PM
Posted: 10 months ago
At 2/10/2016 8:11:49 PM, Peepette wrote:
At 2/10/2016 7:55:14 PM, Buddamoose wrote:
The first three examples are certainly basic, but show a high level of awareness and intelligence imo. Plus perhaps a curiosity and awareness in preserving some sort of record through hands. Maybe the usage of the hands was a means to symbolize the members of the tribe at the time? A record of sorts.

The Chauvat(?) cave paintings are absolutely stunning imho. The level of artistry is mind-blowing to me whenever I look at it. To think sapiens of this lower intelligence were able to depict life with such vivid imagery is always to me astonishing. It really shows that at an instinctual level, we wish to preserve depictions and records of our lives and the world we live in.

Some art historians as well as archaeologist feel the hand prints were done for no other reason than fun; after all kids still like doing this.

That is another possibility, heck, I'm 25 and I still do it sometimes lmao. But honestly, you try and admit you don't on occasion either. Do it and I'll call you a liar :P
"Reality is an illusion created due to a lack of alcohol"
-Airmax1227

"You were the moon all this time, and he was always there to make you shine."

"Was he the sun?"

"No honey, he was the darkness"

-Kazekirion
Peepette
Posts: 1,238
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2/10/2016 8:21:15 PM
Posted: 10 months ago
At 2/10/2016 8:06:10 PM, Buddamoose wrote:
One thing that always leaves me questioning though, is the painting of the dots. I always wonder. What was that depicting? Was it a census count of sorts of members of the tribe perhaps? An unfinished depiction of an animal? A map of some sort? The dots do kind of look similar to the Western parts of Europe(Spain, Portugal, France, that area, plus Northern parts of Africa as well) as they look today, but only vaguely and loosely, so this to me is probably not the case. Maybe a map of tribal hunting grounds?

I'll always wonder what that specific piece was depicting or recording lol

The dots have always been a topic of debate. They do show up in many places where ancient man inhabited. Many think it is a sort of head count of a tribe or family group.
Peepette
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2/10/2016 8:21:50 PM
Posted: 10 months ago
At 2/10/2016 8:09:44 PM, Buddamoose wrote:
Nicely chosen topic btw, Peepette. This should definitely spur plenty of discussion :)

TY
Buddamoose
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2/10/2016 8:23:44 PM
Posted: 10 months ago
At 2/10/2016 8:21:15 PM, Peepette wrote:
At 2/10/2016 8:06:10 PM, Buddamoose wrote:
One thing that always leaves me questioning though, is the painting of the dots. I always wonder. What was that depicting? Was it a census count of sorts of members of the tribe perhaps? An unfinished depiction of an animal? A map of some sort? The dots do kind of look similar to the Western parts of Europe(Spain, Portugal, France, that area, plus Northern parts of Africa as well) as they look today, but only vaguely and loosely, so this to me is probably not the case. Maybe a map of tribal hunting grounds?

I'll always wonder what that specific piece was depicting or recording lol

The dots have always been a topic of debate. They do show up in many places where ancient man inhabited. Many think it is a sort of head count of a tribe or family group.

Yeah, that is definitely a likely possibility. Like I said though, the dots, of one traces an outline around them, look kind of like a combination of Western Europe and North Africa with a central part in the middle(Mediterranean valley basin perhaps?) IMHO. But that could be me imagining things tbh
"Reality is an illusion created due to a lack of alcohol"
-Airmax1227

"You were the moon all this time, and he was always there to make you shine."

"Was he the sun?"

"No honey, he was the darkness"

-Kazekirion
Peepette
Posts: 1,238
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2/10/2016 8:28:32 PM
Posted: 10 months ago
At 2/10/2016 8:01:57 PM, Buddamoose wrote:
The wildlife depicted in the Chauvet caves is also astonishing. Hyenas, Bison, animals that now are not even found in that area. It really makes one wonder what caused this centralization of wildlife into certain areas, and actually imho, lends credence to flood myths.

At this time people were still semi-normatic, and there's evidence that trading was done between group.

The flood myth, btw, is believed to be a reference to the creation of the Mediterranean Sea long ago. When the side of the basin inevitably collapsed at the Pillars of Hercules, the Atlantic Ocean rushed into it, creating the sea that is around today. This also would have created the different climates, as a body of water such as the Mediterranean would alter climates regions around it imho.

Scratching head- I think the Mediterranean Sea's creation was 5.6M yrs. ago. Although the formation of the Black Sea is estimated at around 5600 BC.
Peepette
Posts: 1,238
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2/10/2016 8:29:57 PM
Posted: 10 months ago
At 2/10/2016 8:20:13 PM, Buddamoose wrote:
At 2/10/2016 8:11:49 PM, Peepette wrote:
At 2/10/2016 7:55:14 PM, Buddamoose wrote:
The first three examples are certainly basic, but show a high level of awareness and intelligence imo. Plus perhaps a curiosity and awareness in preserving some sort of record through hands. Maybe the usage of the hands was a means to symbolize the members of the tribe at the time? A record of sorts.

The Chauvat(?) cave paintings are absolutely stunning imho. The level of artistry is mind-blowing to me whenever I look at it. To think sapiens of this lower intelligence were able to depict life with such vivid imagery is always to me astonishing. It really shows that at an instinctual level, we wish to preserve depictions and records of our lives and the world we live in.

Some art historians as well as archaeologist feel the hand prints were done for no other reason than fun; after all kids still like doing this.

That is another possibility, heck, I'm 25 and I still do it sometimes lmao. But honestly, you try and admit you don't on occasion either. Do it and I'll call you a liar :P

I have done it, I admit.
Peepette
Posts: 1,238
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2/10/2016 8:31:10 PM
Posted: 10 months ago
At 2/10/2016 8:23:44 PM, Buddamoose wrote:
At 2/10/2016 8:21:15 PM, Peepette wrote:
At 2/10/2016 8:06:10 PM, Buddamoose wrote:
One thing that always leaves me questioning though, is the painting of the dots. I always wonder. What was that depicting? Was it a census count of sorts of members of the tribe perhaps? An unfinished depiction of an animal? A map of some sort? The dots do kind of look similar to the Western parts of Europe(Spain, Portugal, France, that area, plus Northern parts of Africa as well) as they look today, but only vaguely and loosely, so this to me is probably not the case. Maybe a map of tribal hunting grounds?

I'll always wonder what that specific piece was depicting or recording lol

The dots have always been a topic of debate. They do show up in many places where ancient man inhabited. Many think it is a sort of head count of a tribe or family group.

Yeah, that is definitely a likely possibility. Like I said though, the dots, of one traces an outline around them, look kind of like a combination of Western Europe and North Africa with a central part in the middle(Mediterranean valley basin perhaps?) IMHO. But that could be me imagining things tbh

Your guess is as good any anyone's
Buddamoose
Posts: 19,448
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2/10/2016 8:35:39 PM
Posted: 10 months ago
At 2/10/2016 8:28:32 PM, Peepette wrote:
At 2/10/2016 8:01:57 PM, Buddamoose wrote:
The wildlife depicted in the Chauvet caves is also astonishing. Hyenas, Bison, animals that now are not even found in that area. It really makes one wonder what caused this centralization of wildlife into certain areas, and actually imho, lends credence to flood myths.

At this time people were still semi-normatic, and there's evidence that trading was done between group.

The flood myth, btw, is believed to be a reference to the creation of the Mediterranean Sea long ago. When the side of the basin inevitably collapsed at the Pillars of Hercules, the Atlantic Ocean rushed into it, creating the sea that is around today. This also would have created the different climates, as a body of water such as the Mediterranean would alter climates regions around it imho.

Scratching head- I think the Mediterranean Sea's creation was 5.6M yrs. ago. Although the formation of the Black Sea is estimated at around 5600 BC.

I prolly got names mixed up
"Reality is an illusion created due to a lack of alcohol"
-Airmax1227

"You were the moon all this time, and he was always there to make you shine."

"Was he the sun?"

"No honey, he was the darkness"

-Kazekirion
Skepsikyma
Posts: 8,280
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2/15/2016 8:42:30 PM
Posted: 9 months ago
At 2/10/2016 8:01:57 PM, Buddamoose wrote:
The wildlife depicted in the Chauvet caves is also astonishing. Hyenas, Bison, animals that now are not even found in that area. It really makes one wonder what caused this centralization of wildlife into certain areas, and actually imho, lends credence to flood myths.

The flood myth, btw, is believed to be a reference to the creation of the Mediterranean Sea long ago. When the side of the basin inevitably collapsed at the Pillars of Hercules, the Atlantic Ocean rushed into it, creating the sea that is around today. This also would have created the different climates, as a body of water such as the Mediterranean would alter climates regions around it imho.

Well, it was tundra/steppes at the time, with completely different life forms than we would typically come to expect (wooly rhinos, large cats, etc.). What interests me about Chauvet is the fact that's it been dated to the Aurignacian period. The Aurignacians weren't particularly known for their cave paintings (they were masters of sculpture dedicated to fertility cults, not the paintings usually associated with animist rites), so it makes me think that the dating may be off, or that we're very wrong about either who was living there at the time or what Aurignacian culture was like.
"The Collectivist experiment is thoroughly suited (in appearance at least) to the Capitalist society which it proposes to replace. It works with the existing machinery of Capitalism, talks and thinks in the existing terms of Capitalism, appeals to just those appetites which Capitalism has aroused, and ridicules as fantastic and unheard-of just those things in society the memory of which Capitalism has killed among men wherever the blight of it has spread."
- Hilaire Belloc -
Peepette
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2/15/2016 10:25:51 PM
Posted: 9 months ago
At 2/15/2016 8:42:30 PM, Skepsikyma wrote:
At 2/10/2016 8:01:57 PM, Buddamoose wrote:
The wildlife depicted in the Chauvet caves is also astonishing. Hyenas, Bison, animals that now are not even found in that area. It really makes one wonder what caused this centralization of wildlife into certain areas, and actually imho, lends credence to flood myths.

The flood myth, btw, is believed to be a reference to the creation of the Mediterranean Sea long ago. When the side of the basin inevitably collapsed at the Pillars of Hercules, the Atlantic Ocean rushed into it, creating the sea that is around today. This also would have created the different climates, as a body of water such as the Mediterranean would alter climates regions around it imho.

Well, it was tundra/steppes at the time, with completely different life forms than we would typically come to expect (wooly rhinos, large cats, etc.). What interests me about Chauvet is the fact that's it been dated to the Aurignacian period. The Aurignacians weren't particularly known for their cave paintings (they were masters of sculpture dedicated to fertility cults, not the paintings usually associated with animist rites), so it makes me think that the dating may be off, or that we're very wrong about either who was living there at the time or what Aurignacian culture was like.

What really made Chavet different than other cave painting is that it did depict rhinos and large cats. Other cave paintings, in other locations showed only animals that were hunted. What marks the Aurignacian culture, between 40,000-28,000 years ago, is not only their small idol making but, also the significant advancement with stone tool creation. Here, they began flaking stone and had greater diversification of tools.
Skepsikyma
Posts: 8,280
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2/15/2016 11:17:22 PM
Posted: 9 months ago
At 2/15/2016 10:25:51 PM, Peepette wrote:
At 2/15/2016 8:42:30 PM, Skepsikyma wrote:
At 2/10/2016 8:01:57 PM, Buddamoose wrote:
The wildlife depicted in the Chauvet caves is also astonishing. Hyenas, Bison, animals that now are not even found in that area. It really makes one wonder what caused this centralization of wildlife into certain areas, and actually imho, lends credence to flood myths.

The flood myth, btw, is believed to be a reference to the creation of the Mediterranean Sea long ago. When the side of the basin inevitably collapsed at the Pillars of Hercules, the Atlantic Ocean rushed into it, creating the sea that is around today. This also would have created the different climates, as a body of water such as the Mediterranean would alter climates regions around it imho.

Well, it was tundra/steppes at the time, with completely different life forms than we would typically come to expect (wooly rhinos, large cats, etc.). What interests me about Chauvet is the fact that's it been dated to the Aurignacian period. The Aurignacians weren't particularly known for their cave paintings (they were masters of sculpture dedicated to fertility cults, not the paintings usually associated with animist rites), so it makes me think that the dating may be off, or that we're very wrong about either who was living there at the time or what Aurignacian culture was like.

What really made Chavet different than other cave painting is that it did depict rhinos and large cats. Other cave paintings, in other locations showed only animals that were hunted.

They very well may have hunted those animals; I believe that part of the woolly rhinoceros's extinction can be attributed to over-hunting by the Aurignacians, and the ritualized hunting of apex predators wasn't uncommon in early civilizations with animist tendencies.
"The Collectivist experiment is thoroughly suited (in appearance at least) to the Capitalist society which it proposes to replace. It works with the existing machinery of Capitalism, talks and thinks in the existing terms of Capitalism, appeals to just those appetites which Capitalism has aroused, and ridicules as fantastic and unheard-of just those things in society the memory of which Capitalism has killed among men wherever the blight of it has spread."
- Hilaire Belloc -
Peepette
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2/18/2016 7:52:24 PM
Posted: 9 months ago
Week 2: Art and the Birth of Civilization

Between 10,000 and 8,000 BCE man tossed away sporadic farming and the hunter gatherer way of life to agriculture and animal husbandry. Small farming communities began to sprout long the Tigris and Euphrates, Iraq, the Nile River, Egypt, the Yellow River, China, as well as along the Indus River Valley, Pakistan and Northern India.

By 5,000 BCE in Mesopotamia, the Sumerians had technology to irrigate crops and communities grew to large city states where differentiated social strata's and political centralization was developed. A belief system initially based on nature, i.e. wind, and water etc. developed into polytheism with concepts of multiple major and minor gods of the earth and heavens, along with a belief in the afterlife. Their social/religious system was life in service to these gods.

The Sumerians made sculptures from marble, alabaster, limestone, gypsum, lapis lazuli, and wood. Ziggurats were built in the center of cities as places of worship. Below is an example of figures from the Abu Temple 2700 BCE. These marble carved figures of various size is symbolic of hierarchical ranking. The tallest figure at 30" is the god of vegetation. The tall female figures, mother goddesses for fertility, smaller statues are priests, smallest worshipers. The bodies are cylindrical with cone like limbs. They are abstract figures, with highly stylized repetitious designs with a focus on large eyes; once inlayed with colored stones or enamel. They stare in supplication on the behalf of their patrons.

http://www.debate.org...

Below Ram Caught in Thicket, 2,600 BCE, 16.5" tall, is one of a pair made to face each together holding a bowl or other like object. It is thought to be symbolic of land fertility and connected to a Sheppard god mythology. It"s made of gold, copper, shell, limestone and lapis lazuli. It was found near a royal tomb in the Ur Great Death pit.

http://www.debate.org...

Meanwhile in China along the Yellow River, between 16,500 and 19,000 BCE humans had already developed pottery. By 10,000 BCE rice and millet were agricultural crops. Rounding to 5,000 BCE, cities were developing up and down the river. The early Longshan culture of 3000-2500 BCE was the shift in urban centers where agriculture was no longer of major focus. They had developed into military aristocracies, with a stratified social classes and religious beliefs based on ancestor worship. An example is located in Chengtoushan, northern China. Rice crops grew outside of a fortified walled city. Here evidence of wheel thrown pottery, jade tooling, silk weaving, lacquer wares, ivory carving, along with copper and bronze artifacts have been unearthed. This culture is known as the "Black Pottery Culture" for its egg shell thin black glazed pottery made from sandy clay, highly polished then black slipped.

http://www.debate.org...
http://www.debate.org...

In the Indus valley from Pakistan through northwest India, farming settlements began around 4,000 BCE; urban development about 2500 BCE, known as the Harappan Civilization. Over 1,000 cities in this region have been found. The Harappa culture provided the first evidence of grid system urban planning and monumental architecture for public use; not for rituals or royals.

Unlike warfare oriented Mesopotamia, Egypt and Chengtoushan of the same era, these were peaceful settlements focused on mercantile trade of cotton woven goods, along with copper and bronze forged tools. Although it is believed some sort of ruling structure was in place, it was more toward organizational aspects of the city life; the culture was non-stratified, egalitarian in nature. They did not bury wealth with the dead nor build large stone sculptures of gods or kings. Most of their art objects were small and symbolic. Figurines of people and animals were made of clay, bronze and shell. Below are animals no longer found in the region; clay rhino figurines. The larger is 3.3"L x 1.25" T, with applied lips and decoration.
http://www.debate.org...

Seal making was prominent, most about a 2x2" square, depicted "Indus script" above symbols of animals, (a contemporary of cuneiform found in Mesopotamia). These seals have been found as far as Mesopotamia and shows extensive trade between cultures was occurring.
http://www.debate.org...

The Priest King 2,500-1500 BCE, Mohenjo-Daro, Pakistan, is a limestone carving that is contrary to its title, since no evidence or priests or kings were found. It is believed by scholars to be a self-portrait. The 7" figure has a fillet style head and armband, and a cloak with trefoil patterns once filled with red paint.
http://www.debate.org...
Vaarka
Posts: 7,602
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2/18/2016 9:22:15 PM
Posted: 9 months ago
At 2/18/2016 7:52:24 PM, Peepette wrote:
Week 2: Art and the Birth of Civilization

Between 10,000 and 8,000 BCE man tossed away sporadic farming and the hunter gatherer way of life to agriculture and animal husbandry. Small farming communities began to sprout long the Tigris and Euphrates, Iraq, the Nile River, Egypt, the Yellow River, China, as well as along the Indus River Valley, Pakistan and Northern India.

By 5,000 BCE in Mesopotamia, the Sumerians had technology to irrigate crops and communities grew to large city states where differentiated social strata's and political centralization was developed. A belief system initially based on nature, i.e. wind, and water etc. developed into polytheism with concepts of multiple major and minor gods of the earth and heavens, along with a belief in the afterlife. Their social/religious system was life in service to these gods.

The Sumerians made sculptures from marble, alabaster, limestone, gypsum, lapis lazuli, and wood. Ziggurats were built in the center of cities as places of worship. Below is an example of figures from the Abu Temple 2700 BCE. These marble carved figures of various size is symbolic of hierarchical ranking. The tallest figure at 30" is the god of vegetation. The tall female figures, mother goddesses for fertility, smaller statues are priests, smallest worshipers. The bodies are cylindrical with cone like limbs. They are abstract figures, with highly stylized repetitious designs with a focus on large eyes; once inlayed with colored stones or enamel. They stare in supplication on the behalf of their patrons.

http://www.debate.org...

Below Ram Caught in Thicket, 2,600 BCE, 16.5" tall, is one of a pair made to face each together holding a bowl or other like object. It is thought to be symbolic of land fertility and connected to a Sheppard god mythology. It"s made of gold, copper, shell, limestone and lapis lazuli. It was found near a royal tomb in the Ur Great Death pit.

http://www.debate.org...

Meanwhile in China along the Yellow River, between 16,500 and 19,000 BCE humans had already developed pottery. By 10,000 BCE rice and millet were agricultural crops. Rounding to 5,000 BCE, cities were developing up and down the river. The early Longshan culture of 3000-2500 BCE was the shift in urban centers where agriculture was no longer of major focus. They had developed into military aristocracies, with a stratified social classes and religious beliefs based on ancestor worship. An example is located in Chengtoushan, northern China. Rice crops grew outside of a fortified walled city. Here evidence of wheel thrown pottery, jade tooling, silk weaving, lacquer wares, ivory carving, along with copper and bronze artifacts have been unearthed. This culture is known as the "Black Pottery Culture" for its egg shell thin black glazed pottery made from sandy clay, highly polished then black slipped.

http://www.debate.org...
http://www.debate.org...

In the Indus valley from Pakistan through northwest India, farming settlements began around 4,000 BCE; urban development about 2500 BCE, known as the Harappan Civilization. Over 1,000 cities in this region have been found. The Harappa culture provided the first evidence of grid system urban planning and monumental architecture for public use; not for rituals or royals.

Unlike warfare oriented Mesopotamia, Egypt and Chengtoushan of the same era, these were peaceful settlements focused on mercantile trade of cotton woven goods, along with copper and bronze forged tools. Although it is believed some sort of ruling structure was in place, it was more toward organizational aspects of the city life; the culture was non-stratified, egalitarian in nature. They did not bury wealth with the dead nor build large stone sculptures of gods or kings. Most of their art objects were small and symbolic. Figurines of people and animals were made of clay, bronze and shell. Below are animals no longer found in the region; clay rhino figurines. The larger is 3.3"L x 1.25" T, with applied lips and decoration.
http://www.debate.org...

Seal making was prominent, most about a 2x2" square, depicted "Indus script" above symbols of animals, (a contemporary of cuneiform found in Mesopotamia). These seals have been found as far as Mesopotamia and shows extensive trade between cultures was occurring.
http://www.debate.org...


The Priest King 2,500-1500 BCE, Mohenjo-Daro, Pakistan, is a limestone carving that is contrary to its title, since no evidence or priests or kings were found. It is believed by scholars to be a self-portrait. The 7" figure has a fillet style head and armband, and a cloak with trefoil patterns once filled with red paint.
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Good job, Peep, though I think making a new thread would help in terms of getting rid of the hassle of looking through a single thread to find each new entry (though it's your choice. This isn't a bad idea either :3)
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2/18/2016 9:23:22 PM
Posted: 9 months ago
At 2/18/2016 9:22:15 PM, Vaarka wrote:
At 2/18/2016 7:52:24 PM, Peepette wrote:
Week 2: Art and the Birth of Civilization

Between 10,000 and 8,000 BCE man tossed away sporadic farming and the hunter gatherer way of life to agriculture and animal husbandry. Small farming communities began to sprout long the Tigris and Euphrates, Iraq, the Nile River, Egypt, the Yellow River, China, as well as along the Indus River Valley, Pakistan and Northern India.

By 5,000 BCE in Mesopotamia, the Sumerians had technology to irrigate crops and communities grew to large city states where differentiated social strata's and political centralization was developed. A belief system initially based on nature, i.e. wind, and water etc. developed into polytheism with concepts of multiple major and minor gods of the earth and heavens, along with a belief in the afterlife. Their social/religious system was life in service to these gods.

The Sumerians made sculptures from marble, alabaster, limestone, gypsum, lapis lazuli, and wood. Ziggurats were built in the center of cities as places of worship. Below is an example of figures from the Abu Temple 2700 BCE. These marble carved figures of various size is symbolic of hierarchical ranking. The tallest figure at 30" is the god of vegetation. The tall female figures, mother goddesses for fertility, smaller statues are priests, smallest worshipers. The bodies are cylindrical with cone like limbs. They are abstract figures, with highly stylized repetitious designs with a focus on large eyes; once inlayed with colored stones or enamel. They stare in supplication on the behalf of their patrons.

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Below Ram Caught in Thicket, 2,600 BCE, 16.5" tall, is one of a pair made to face each together holding a bowl or other like object. It is thought to be symbolic of land fertility and connected to a Sheppard god mythology. It"s made of gold, copper, shell, limestone and lapis lazuli. It was found near a royal tomb in the Ur Great Death pit.

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Meanwhile in China along the Yellow River, between 16,500 and 19,000 BCE humans had already developed pottery. By 10,000 BCE rice and millet were agricultural crops. Rounding to 5,000 BCE, cities were developing up and down the river. The early Longshan culture of 3000-2500 BCE was the shift in urban centers where agriculture was no longer of major focus. They had developed into military aristocracies, with a stratified social classes and religious beliefs based on ancestor worship. An example is located in Chengtoushan, northern China. Rice crops grew outside of a fortified walled city. Here evidence of wheel thrown pottery, jade tooling, silk weaving, lacquer wares, ivory carving, along with copper and bronze artifacts have been unearthed. This culture is known as the "Black Pottery Culture" for its egg shell thin black glazed pottery made from sandy clay, highly polished then black slipped.

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In the Indus valley from Pakistan through northwest India, farming settlements began around 4,000 BCE; urban development about 2500 BCE, known as the Harappan Civilization. Over 1,000 cities in this region have been found. The Harappa culture provided the first evidence of grid system urban planning and monumental architecture for public use; not for rituals or royals.

Unlike warfare oriented Mesopotamia, Egypt and Chengtoushan of the same era, these were peaceful settlements focused on mercantile trade of cotton woven goods, along with copper and bronze forged tools. Although it is believed some sort of ruling structure was in place, it was more toward organizational aspects of the city life; the culture was non-stratified, egalitarian in nature. They did not bury wealth with the dead nor build large stone sculptures of gods or kings. Most of their art objects were small and symbolic. Figurines of people and animals were made of clay, bronze and shell. Below are animals no longer found in the region; clay rhino figurines. The larger is 3.3"L x 1.25" T, with applied lips and decoration.
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Seal making was prominent, most about a 2x2" square, depicted "Indus script" above symbols of animals, (a contemporary of cuneiform found in Mesopotamia). These seals have been found as far as Mesopotamia and shows extensive trade between cultures was occurring.
http://www.debate.org...


The Priest King 2,500-1500 BCE, Mohenjo-Daro, Pakistan, is a limestone carving that is contrary to its title, since no evidence or priests or kings were found. It is believed by scholars to be a self-portrait. The 7" figure has a fillet style head and armband, and a cloak with trefoil patterns once filled with red paint.
http://www.debate.org...

Good job, Peep, though I think making a new thread would help in terms of getting rid of the hassle of looking through a single thread to find each new entry (though it's your choice. This isn't a bad idea either :3)

You have a point.