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Art History Weekly V

Peepette
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3/10/2016 3:19:14 AM
Posted: 8 months ago
Renaissance 1400 -1700

History in brief: 1400's: Joan of Arc was burned at the stake. The Council of Florence attempts to reunite the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Church; it's no go. The Haspburgs rise to power in Austria and the 100 year war comes to an end. Muslim hold on Spain is lost, Constantinople falls to the Turks.

1500's: Henry VIII founds the Anglican Church and Marin Luther hits the scene. Cortez decimates the Aztec Empire, and more people of note are burned at the stake in Europe. Ivan the Terrible rises to power in Russia. The House of Medici rises to influence in Italy. Various European counties tussle with one another over trade routes, for power, and of course religion; Catholics, Anglicans and the new Lutherans.

1600's: Jamestown Virginia is colonized and a few others colonies are established up and down the East coast of the Americas. Charles I is beheaded under Cromwell in England and Louis XIV begins his reign of tyranny in France.

1700's: Peter the Great straightens out and westernizes Russia and Methodism is founded. The French and Indian war goes into full swing and Catherine the Great extends power to the Back Sea.

What distinguishes the Renaissance is the realization of the people of the time that they were no longer living in the Dark Ages. This may sound odd. But, through what had happened, the fall of the Roman Empire, a parade of wars and the plaque, there was sense that not much was accomplish in the last thousand years; hence the Dark Ages. They looked back to what was once the former glory of the Empire as the golden age, reviving the arts, sciences and philosophy. Not to copy the works of antiquity as such, but to rediscover former achievements and make them their own. It was a rebirth and movement forward where art was at its most prolific and moved into the modern age. Works moved away from religious content to more individual and secular themes.

Your Turn

Here is where you, the reader comes in. Presented are many pieces from the Renaissance period, many will be familiar. If you have interest, compare and contrast works from the Medieval Period or just compare one work to another. Looking forward to your analysis.

Early

http://www.debate.org...
Brancacci Chapel Frescoes (1424-8), Tommaso Masaccio

http://www.debate.org...
Adoration of the Magi (1440-43) Painting on wood Domenico Veneziano

http://www.debate.org...
Birth of Venus, 1486, oil on canvas, Sandro Botticelli

http://www.debate.org...
The Lady with an Ermine 1489/90, oil on wood panel, 21x15" Leonardo da Vinci

http://www.debate.org...
The Pieta, St Peters, Rome. 1499-1500, marble, Michelangelo Buonarroti

http://www.debate.org...
Madonna and Child with Two Saints, 1490, oil on panel, Giovanni Bellini

http://www.debate.org...
The Vield Woman, 1516, oil on canvas, Raphael Sanzio da Urbino

http://www.debate.org...
Venus of Umbrio 1538, oil on canvas, Titian

http://www.debate.org...
Hercules and the Centaur Nessus, 1599, marble

In England

http://www.debate.org...
Portrait Henry VII, 1536, oil on canvas, Hans Holbein the Younger

http://www.debate.org...
Lady Elizabeth Noel Wriothesley, 1660-65, oil on canvas, Peter Lely

In Holland & Netherlands

http://www.debate.org...
Knight, Death and Devil, engraving, Albrecht Durer

http://www.debate.org...
The Garden of Earthly Delights, 1516, oil on cancas, Hieronymus Bosch

http://www.debate.org...
Merry Company,1540, oil on canvas, Jan Sanders van Hemessen

https://www.youtube.com...
Peepette
Posts: 1,237
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3/10/2016 3:22:22 AM
Posted: 8 months ago
WEEK V

We left off last week after the fall of the Roman Empire to the early through mid Byzantine era. This week I'm throwing out the old format and letting the reader compare and contrast between two periods in art; The Middle Ages and the Renaissance. It will be more regionally focused rather than the world view as previously presented. Provided are historical overviews of each period. Detailed background information and examples will be provided for Middle Age art and nothing more than title, materials and artists for Renaissance work. I'll leave the rest to you. It is a large chunk time and a boat load of material spanning over a 1,000 years. There's enough information to keep you coming back and occupied for days; ENJOY!

To put things in context, here's brief review clip on The Classical Period of Greek and Roman art during the height of the Roman Empire. It will serve as a reference point for Renaissance Age works that occurs a thousand years later.

https://www.youtube.com...

600-1400AD, MEDIEVAL ART, THE DARK AGES

History in brief: After the fall of the Roman Empire there was a very sharp decline in urban populations, literacy arts and sciences. By 732 AD the Ottoman Empire, now religious Islam had swallowed North Africa, Spain and stretched into the Indus Valley (India). The Byzantine Empire had lost its access to the western Mediterranean. In 800 AD Pope Leo III crowned Frankish Charlemagne as Majestic Emperor over all of Christendom, as well as political King over the Franks and Lombards. Charlemagne made his capital in Aachen (Germany) which was the center of kingdom, in what is now known as Northern Italy, France, Germany, Austria and the Netherlands.

The Roman Catholic Church broke ties with the Eastern Orthodox and sought support from the Germanic north to secure its borders. In 1000 and 1100 AD respectively, Spain and the Mediterranean was regained by Byzantine powers. The Christian faith took hold with a fervor which spurred on the first Crusades in 1095 to liberate their holy lands from Muslim rule. During the second crusade beginning in 1147, the church lost Damascus; as a result of the third, loss Jerusalem to the Muslim warrior Saladin. By 1202 the Roman Church was on its 4th Crusade and Constantinople was retaken. The English Magna Carta was signed in 1215. In 1300 AD the 100 year war between France & England began. By the mid 1300's the Black Death raged through Europe decimating a third of Europe"s population which crippled its economy.

*****
The Medieval period is considered an Age of Faith as two major faiths, Christianity and Islam, spread and took hold in their various kingdoms. Artistically, the Islamic and European powers went into drastically different directions. During this time the Islamic Empire did not produce art that depicted Allah or other living things. It was/is thought to be a creative act for Allah alone; although it was a boom time for architecture in the east. It developed its own unique style that rivaled Europe"s in technical expertise and beauty. Due to the lack of iconography in this part of the world comparisons would be difficult. Focus will be on art in the European Christian territory.

One has to remember that art was not done for art sake after the fall of Rome. Art was a means of communication between the church/state to the largely illiterate masses.

EARLY 700-1050 MEDIEVAL ART

During the early period of consolidation in northern Europe a variety of artistic influences flowed and intermingled.

Hiberno-Saxon Style

With the spread of Christianity into Ireland the monks brought with them their Celtic art traditions with its geometric repetitive patterns and curvilinear movement. It melded with pagan Anglo Saxon art with its brightly colored interlaced patterns and zoomorphic forms. The end products were more geometric than naturalistic. This style became the embellishment for holy manuscripts and later brought its influence to the Carolinian style.

Book of Kels, Illuminated Manuscript, 800 AD
http://www.debate.org...
http://www.debate.org...

Carolinian Style

To the north Charlemagne undertook a Roman Classicism revival. With the downfall of the Roman Empire he wished to bring back the glory of that classical civilization. The movement mimicked early Christian, contemporary Byzantine and Greco-Roman works, and again was shown in Illuminated Manuscripts whose covers were richly adorned to glorify the text enclosed.

Adda Gospels 800 AD http://www.debate.org...
The figure is framed by Roman Corinthian style columns and arch.

Virgin Enthroned with Child, Lorsch Gospels, 810 AD http://www.debate.org...
Is a lavish carved ivory in wood frame manuscript cover

Ottonian Style

Charlemagne's empire dwindled and was divided after his death and Emperor Otto came to power in 926. Norsemen invaded Ireland, Briton and Northern France but eventually became part of the European Empire, in a love hate manner; they shaped art as the Ottonian influence. Again liturgical manuscripts were produced along with ornamental pieces. It had many Byzantine characteristics with elongated figures and Roman sense of perspective. Neither Carolinian or Ottonian influences produced any monumental stone sculptures; only sculpture in miniature for plaques and building facades.
http://www.debate.org...

http://www.debate.org... Annunciation to Shepherds, Lectionary of Henry II, Illuminated Manuscript

LATE MEDIEVAL ART

Romanesque Period

Between 1050 -1100 has been labeled the Romanesque period of the medieval era. Trade had greatly increased in Venice, Genoa and Pisa. During the early period Rome was a shadow of its former self, now was beginning to revive. With a past of political turmoil in mind, the church firmly asserted its supremacy; a spiritual attitude was required from laborer to King and fire and brimstone was the threat. Monumental stone sculptures were again being made in France.

This is an ambulatory relief. The solid form has classical Roman influences, with full frontal stance reminiscent of Byzantine works. The hair is formalized and body block like in shape. http://www.debate.org...

The Last Judgment 1030 AD, Autun Cathedral depicting the apocalypse is particularly stirring. To the right of the center God figure is an angle weighing of souls. The far right, the dammed are grabbed by the grimacing devil, who is a composite of animal like creatures. At the bottom is the dead rising in fear with claw like hands reaching for them. The saved are at the left of center as childlike figures clinging to the hems of angles.

http://www.debate.org...
http://www.debate.org...
http://www.debate.org...

Gothic Period

1100-1400 AD. The Crusades were winding to their end and Middle Eastern art influences seeped into Europe. City states were growing with a stable economies as well as a rising middle class after the plague. Art was still predominately of a religious nature, but also was starting to develop as a consignment item to show wealth, prestige and to make political commentary.

https://www.youtube.com...
https://www.youtube.com...
diarrhea_of_a_wimpy_kid
Posts: 146
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3/10/2016 2:54:04 PM
Posted: 8 months ago
At 3/10/2016 3:19:14 AM, Peepette wrote:
Renaissance 1400 -1700

History in brief: 1400's: Joan of Arc was burned at the stake. The Council of Florence attempts to reunite the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Church; it's no go. The Haspburgs rise to power in Austria and the 100 year war comes to an end. Muslim hold on Spain is lost, Constantinople falls to the Turks.

1500's: Henry VIII founds the Anglican Church and Marin Luther hits the scene. Cortez decimates the Aztec Empire, and more people of note are burned at the stake in Europe. Ivan the Terrible rises to power in Russia. The House of Medici rises to influence in Italy. Various European counties tussle with one another over trade routes, for power, and of course religion; Catholics, Anglicans and the new Lutherans.

1600's: Jamestown Virginia is colonized and a few others colonies are established up and down the East coast of the Americas. Charles I is beheaded under Cromwell in England and Louis XIV begins his reign of tyranny in France.

1700's: Peter the Great straightens out and westernizes Russia and Methodism is founded. The French and Indian war goes into full swing and Catherine the Great extends power to the Back Sea.

What distinguishes the Renaissance is the realization of the people of the time that they were no longer living in the Dark Ages. This may sound odd. But, through what had happened, the fall of the Roman Empire, a parade of wars and the plaque, there was sense that not much was accomplish in the last thousand years; hence the Dark Ages. They looked back to what was once the former glory of the Empire as the golden age, reviving the arts, sciences and philosophy. Not to copy the works of antiquity as such, but to rediscover former achievements and make them their own. It was a rebirth and movement forward where art was at its most prolific and moved into the modern age. Works moved away from religious content to more individual and secular themes.

Your Turn

Here is where you, the reader comes in. Presented are many pieces from the Renaissance period, many will be familiar. If you have interest, compare and contrast works from the Medieval Period or just compare one work to another. Looking forward to your analysis.

Early

http://www.debate.org...
Brancacci Chapel Frescoes (1424-8), Tommaso Masaccio

http://www.debate.org...
Adoration of the Magi (1440-43) Painting on wood Domenico Veneziano

http://www.debate.org...
Birth of Venus, 1486, oil on canvas, Sandro Botticelli

http://www.debate.org...
The Lady with an Ermine 1489/90, oil on wood panel, 21x15" Leonardo da Vinci

http://www.debate.org...
The Pieta, St Peters, Rome. 1499-1500, marble, Michelangelo Buonarroti

http://www.debate.org...
Madonna and Child with Two Saints, 1490, oil on panel, Giovanni Bellini

http://www.debate.org...
The Vield Woman, 1516, oil on canvas, Raphael Sanzio da Urbino

http://www.debate.org...
Venus of Umbrio 1538, oil on canvas, Titian

http://www.debate.org...
Hercules and the Centaur Nessus, 1599, marble

In England

http://www.debate.org...
Portrait Henry VII, 1536, oil on canvas, Hans Holbein the Younger

http://www.debate.org...
Lady Elizabeth Noel Wriothesley, 1660-65, oil on canvas, Peter Lely

In Holland & Netherlands

http://www.debate.org...
Knight, Death and Devil, engraving, Albrecht Durer

http://www.debate.org...
The Garden of Earthly Delights, 1516, oil on cancas, Hieronymus Bosch

http://www.debate.org...
Merry Company,1540, oil on canvas, Jan Sanders van Hemessen


https://www.youtube.com...

What strikes me when viewing the pictures in succession was exactly how much more advanced the Italian masters were than the rest of Europe, in terms of lighting, depth, perspective, and human anatomy. It's not even close. They were 200 years ahead of the field.
Peepette
Posts: 1,237
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3/10/2016 3:57:51 PM
Posted: 8 months ago
At 3/10/2016 2:54:04 PM, diarrhea_of_a_wimpy_kid wrote:
At 3/10/2016 3:19:14 AM, Peepette wrote:
Renaissance 1400 -1700

History in brief: 1400's: Joan of Arc was burned at the stake. The Council of Florence attempts to reunite the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Church; it's no go. The Haspburgs rise to power in Austria and the 100 year war comes to an end. Muslim hold on Spain is lost, Constantinople falls to the Turks.

1500's: Henry VIII founds the Anglican Church and Marin Luther hits the scene. Cortez decimates the Aztec Empire, and more people of note are burned at the stake in Europe. Ivan the Terrible rises to power in Russia. The House of Medici rises to influence in Italy. Various European counties tussle with one another over trade routes, for power, and of course religion; Catholics, Anglicans and the new Lutherans.

1600's: Jamestown Virginia is colonized and a few others colonies are established up and down the East coast of the Americas. Charles I is beheaded under Cromwell in England and Louis XIV begins his reign of tyranny in France.

1700's: Peter the Great straightens out and westernizes Russia and Methodism is founded. The French and Indian war goes into full swing and Catherine the Great extends power to the Back Sea.

What distinguishes the Renaissance is the realization of the people of the time that they were no longer living in the Dark Ages. This may sound odd. But, through what had happened, the fall of the Roman Empire, a parade of wars and the plaque, there was sense that not much was accomplish in the last thousand years; hence the Dark Ages. They looked back to what was once the former glory of the Empire as the golden age, reviving the arts, sciences and philosophy. Not to copy the works of antiquity as such, but to rediscover former achievements and make them their own. It was a rebirth and movement forward where art was at its most prolific and moved into the modern age. Works moved away from religious content to more individual and secular themes.

Your Turn

Here is where you, the reader comes in. Presented are many pieces from the Renaissance period, many will be familiar. If you have interest, compare and contrast works from the Medieval Period or just compare one work to another. Looking forward to your analysis.

Early

http://www.debate.org...
Brancacci Chapel Frescoes (1424-8), Tommaso Masaccio

http://www.debate.org...
Adoration of the Magi (1440-43) Painting on wood Domenico Veneziano

http://www.debate.org...
Birth of Venus, 1486, oil on canvas, Sandro Botticelli

http://www.debate.org...
The Lady with an Ermine 1489/90, oil on wood panel, 21x15" Leonardo da Vinci

http://www.debate.org...
The Pieta, St Peters, Rome. 1499-1500, marble, Michelangelo Buonarroti

http://www.debate.org...
Madonna and Child with Two Saints, 1490, oil on panel, Giovanni Bellini

http://www.debate.org...
The Vield Woman, 1516, oil on canvas, Raphael Sanzio da Urbino

http://www.debate.org...
Venus of Umbrio 1538, oil on canvas, Titian

http://www.debate.org...
Hercules and the Centaur Nessus, 1599, marble

In England

http://www.debate.org...
Portrait Henry VII, 1536, oil on canvas, Hans Holbein the Younger

http://www.debate.org...
Lady Elizabeth Noel Wriothesley, 1660-65, oil on canvas, Peter Lely

In Holland & Netherlands

http://www.debate.org...
Knight, Death and Devil, engraving, Albrecht Durer

http://www.debate.org...
The Garden of Earthly Delights, 1516, oil on cancas, Hieronymus Bosch

http://www.debate.org...
Merry Company,1540, oil on canvas, Jan Sanders van Hemessen


https://www.youtube.com...

What strikes me when viewing the pictures in succession was exactly how much more advanced the Italian masters were than the rest of Europe, in terms of lighting, depth, perspective, and human anatomy. It's not even close. They were 200 years ahead of the field.

Very true. The Italians really had it down. But, remember they had works from Roman antiquity as a reference on their door step.
Now If I didn't post the article in reverse, it would have made more sense. Force of habit with other sites I post to overcame me, Drats.
ironslippers
Posts: 509
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3/11/2016 12:57:17 AM
Posted: 8 months ago
At 3/10/2016 3:57:51 PM, Peepette wrote:

Very true. The Italians really had it down. But, remember they had works from Roman antiquity as a reference on their door step.
Now If I didn't post the article in reverse, it would have made more sense. Force of habit with other sites I post to overcame me, Drats.

Thanx Peepette for your work, definitely expandeding my knowledge of one of my favorite subjects, Art
Something that art historians analysis often come up short in, is the relationship of technology and motivation behind art. Correct me if I'm wrong but the Italians excelled in the development of canvases, brushes, pigments and tools, also their motivation turned from religious symbolism to what we know as marketing/entertainment and became highly subsidized. What we now get in a 2 hr movie they put into a single work of art. Thanks Again.
Everyone stands on their own dung hill and speaks out about someone else's - Nathan Krusemark
Its easier to criticize and hate than it is to support and create - I Ron Slippers
Peepette
Posts: 1,237
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3/11/2016 12:46:31 PM
Posted: 8 months ago
At 3/11/2016 12:57:17 AM, ironslippers wrote:
At 3/10/2016 3:57:51 PM, Peepette wrote:

Very true. The Italians really had it down. But, remember they had works from Roman antiquity as a reference on their door step.
Now If I didn't post the article in reverse, it would have made more sense. Force of habit with other sites I post to overcame me, Drats.

Thanx Peepette for your work, definitely expandeding my knowledge of one of my favorite subjects, Art
Something that art historians analysis often come up short in, is the relationship of technology and motivation behind art. Correct me if I'm wrong but the Italians excelled in the development of canvases, brushes, pigments and tools, also their motivation turned from religious symbolism to what we know as marketing/entertainment and became highly subsidized. What we now get in a 2 hr movie they put into a single work of art. Thanks Again.

I can't say you are wrong with this premise. Literacy and technology does have much to do with the commercialization of art. It was once a communication device sponsored by the church and aristocracy to the illiterate population. Once the printing press was invented in 1400's the cost of owning books declined, and artist to illustrate them, for the most part, were no longer needed. Although people who want to create art always will be motivated to produce. In Italy, art is subsidized due to its artistic tradition. As economies struggle art support wanes.