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Requesting Assistance Finding a Study...

Chaosism
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4/8/2016 6:35:26 PM
Posted: 8 months ago
For the concept below, I am trying to find a reliable source or study, and I've failed to come up with anything, so I'd figure I'd shoot it out there to see if anyone has seen such a thing or anyone is just better at searching than I am.

I am looking for a scientific study on the psychological tendency in which humans passively assume that some agency is observing them (even when there is no direct evidence) and modify their behavior accordingly. I saw a demonstration of this on a clip from 'Of Fear and Faith' in which (briefly) individuals from two groups are brought into a room to undergo a test in which errors are inevitable. A little while in, the experimenter leaves the room (fabricated excuse) leaving the subject alone with the opportunity to cheat. Group 2 has an extra condition, though: their was an antique chair in the room that they were told "was nothing, and that they say an old woman died in it and still sits in it to this day." Group 1 almost universally cheated to some degree while Group 2 almost universally didn't cheat, even though many of them didn't believe in ghosts. The factor was that the idea of being watched was implanted, which triggered modification of behavior.

From a standpoint of evolutionary psychology, during the period of social-psychological development, an individual's survivability is heavily dependent on the disposition of the rest of the group towards that individual. Favored individuals are treated better and are protected as well as more likely to be favored by mate selection, while disfavored individuals may even face exile, which is essentially removal from the gene pool. Judgments of an individual primarily stem from that individuals actions, so naturally, those who behave better while being observed will be judged more favorably. The problem that arises is, what if the individual doesn't know that he's being observed? In this case, if the individual was generally compelled to act as though he was being observed, then there would be a far less probability of that individual being judged unfavorably, thus, increasing overall survivability.

Sorry if this is a lot of text (even though it's still brief), but I find this tendency to be a strong element to the emergence of the concept of a deity and I'm assuming that proper studies exist somewhere. Thank you for any assistance!
janesix
Posts: 3,466
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4/8/2016 7:56:13 PM
Posted: 8 months ago
At 4/8/2016 6:35:26 PM, Chaosism wrote:
For the concept below, I am trying to find a reliable source or study, and I've failed to come up with anything, so I'd figure I'd shoot it out there to see if anyone has seen such a thing or anyone is just better at searching than I am.

I am looking for a scientific study on the psychological tendency in which humans passively assume that some agency is observing them (even when there is no direct evidence) and modify their behavior accordingly. I saw a demonstration of this on a clip from 'Of Fear and Faith' in which (briefly) individuals from two groups are brought into a room to undergo a test in which errors are inevitable. A little while in, the experimenter leaves the room (fabricated excuse) leaving the subject alone with the opportunity to cheat. Group 2 has an extra condition, though: their was an antique chair in the room that they were told "was nothing, and that they say an old woman died in it and still sits in it to this day." Group 1 almost universally cheated to some degree while Group 2 almost universally didn't cheat, even though many of them didn't believe in ghosts. The factor was that the idea of being watched was implanted, which triggered modification of behavior.

From a standpoint of evolutionary psychology, during the period of social-psychological development, an individual's survivability is heavily dependent on the disposition of the rest of the group towards that individual. Favored individuals are treated better and are protected as well as more likely to be favored by mate selection, while disfavored individuals may even face exile, which is essentially removal from the gene pool. Judgments of an individual primarily stem from that individuals actions, so naturally, those who behave better while being observed will be judged more favorably. The problem that arises is, what if the individual doesn't know that he's being observed? In this case, if the individual was generally compelled to act as though he was being observed, then there would be a far less probability of that individual being judged unfavorably, thus, increasing overall survivability.

Sorry if this is a lot of text (even though it's still brief), but I find this tendency to be a strong element to the emergence of the concept of a deity and I'm assuming that proper studies exist somewhere. Thank you for any assistance!

https://www.staff.ncl.ac.uk...

http://journals.plos.org...
Chaosism
Posts: 2,667
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4/8/2016 8:35:27 PM
Posted: 8 months ago
At 4/8/2016 7:56:13 PM, janesix wrote:
At 4/8/2016 6:35:26 PM, Chaosism wrote:
For the concept below, I am trying to find a reliable source or study, and I've failed to come up with anything, so I'd figure I'd shoot it out there to see if anyone has seen such a thing or anyone is just better at searching than I am.

I am looking for a scientific study on the psychological tendency in which humans passively assume that some agency is observing them (even when there is no direct evidence) and modify their behavior accordingly. I saw a demonstration of this on a clip from 'Of Fear and Faith' in which (briefly) individuals from two groups are brought into a room to undergo a test in which errors are inevitable. A little while in, the experimenter leaves the room (fabricated excuse) leaving the subject alone with the opportunity to cheat. Group 2 has an extra condition, though: their was an antique chair in the room that they were told "was nothing, and that they say an old woman died in it and still sits in it to this day." Group 1 almost universally cheated to some degree while Group 2 almost universally didn't cheat, even though many of them didn't believe in ghosts. The factor was that the idea of being watched was implanted, which triggered modification of behavior.

From a standpoint of evolutionary psychology, during the period of social-psychological development, an individual's survivability is heavily dependent on the disposition of the rest of the group towards that individual. Favored individuals are treated better and are protected as well as more likely to be favored by mate selection, while disfavored individuals may even face exile, which is essentially removal from the gene pool. Judgments of an individual primarily stem from that individuals actions, so naturally, those who behave better while being observed will be judged more favorably. The problem that arises is, what if the individual doesn't know that he's being observed? In this case, if the individual was generally compelled to act as though he was being observed, then there would be a far less probability of that individual being judged unfavorably, thus, increasing overall survivability.

Sorry if this is a lot of text (even though it's still brief), but I find this tendency to be a strong element to the emergence of the concept of a deity and I'm assuming that proper studies exist somewhere. Thank you for any assistance!

https://www.staff.ncl.ac.uk...

http://journals.plos.org...

Thanks, Jane! The second I had found, but not the first. Both of these directly key into the imagery of eyes, which is a direct instigator to this effect. The first study here shows it in a more passive effect, so thank you. I am particularly looking for such studies that don't rely on persistent imagery (like eyes or mirrors), which I should have clarified. Thank you again for your help, Jane.
janesix
Posts: 3,466
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4/8/2016 8:38:22 PM
Posted: 8 months ago
At 4/8/2016 8:35:27 PM, Chaosism wrote:
At 4/8/2016 7:56:13 PM, janesix wrote:
At 4/8/2016 6:35:26 PM, Chaosism wrote:
For the concept below, I am trying to find a reliable source or study, and I've failed to come up with anything, so I'd figure I'd shoot it out there to see if anyone has seen such a thing or anyone is just better at searching than I am.

I am looking for a scientific study on the psychological tendency in which humans passively assume that some agency is observing them (even when there is no direct evidence) and modify their behavior accordingly. I saw a demonstration of this on a clip from 'Of Fear and Faith' in which (briefly) individuals from two groups are brought into a room to undergo a test in which errors are inevitable. A little while in, the experimenter leaves the room (fabricated excuse) leaving the subject alone with the opportunity to cheat. Group 2 has an extra condition, though: their was an antique chair in the room that they were told "was nothing, and that they say an old woman died in it and still sits in it to this day." Group 1 almost universally cheated to some degree while Group 2 almost universally didn't cheat, even though many of them didn't believe in ghosts. The factor was that the idea of being watched was implanted, which triggered modification of behavior.

From a standpoint of evolutionary psychology, during the period of social-psychological development, an individual's survivability is heavily dependent on the disposition of the rest of the group towards that individual. Favored individuals are treated better and are protected as well as more likely to be favored by mate selection, while disfavored individuals may even face exile, which is essentially removal from the gene pool. Judgments of an individual primarily stem from that individuals actions, so naturally, those who behave better while being observed will be judged more favorably. The problem that arises is, what if the individual doesn't know that he's being observed? In this case, if the individual was generally compelled to act as though he was being observed, then there would be a far less probability of that individual being judged unfavorably, thus, increasing overall survivability.

Sorry if this is a lot of text (even though it's still brief), but I find this tendency to be a strong element to the emergence of the concept of a deity and I'm assuming that proper studies exist somewhere. Thank you for any assistance!

https://www.staff.ncl.ac.uk...

http://journals.plos.org...

Thanks, Jane! The second I had found, but not the first. Both of these directly key into the imagery of eyes, which is a direct instigator to this effect. The first study here shows it in a more passive effect, so thank you. I am particularly looking for such studies that don't rely on persistent imagery (like eyes or mirrors), which I should have clarified. Thank you again for your help, Jane.

The subject is interesting, so thank you for bringing it up. It was hard to find anything at all, it will be neat to see what you can find on it.
RuvDraba
Posts: 6,033
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4/11/2016 4:24:33 PM
Posted: 8 months ago
At 4/8/2016 7:56:13 PM, janesix wrote:
At 4/8/2016 6:35:26 PM, Chaosism wrote:
I am looking for a scientific study on the psychological tendency in which humans passively assume that some agency is observing them (even when there is no direct evidence) and modify their behavior accordingly.
https://www.staff.ncl.ac.uk...
http://journals.plos.org...

Thanks Jane. It's a delight to see other members posting science journal articles as primary sources (and a delight to see members asking for them, Chaosism. :D)
Burzmali
Posts: 1,310
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4/11/2016 6:13:00 PM
Posted: 8 months ago
At 4/8/2016 8:35:27 PM, Chaosism wrote:
At 4/8/2016 7:56:13 PM, janesix wrote:
At 4/8/2016 6:35:26 PM, Chaosism wrote:
For the concept below, I am trying to find a reliable source or study, and I've failed to come up with anything, so I'd figure I'd shoot it out there to see if anyone has seen such a thing or anyone is just better at searching than I am.

I am looking for a scientific study on the psychological tendency in which humans passively assume that some agency is observing them (even when there is no direct evidence) and modify their behavior accordingly. I saw a demonstration of this on a clip from 'Of Fear and Faith' in which (briefly) individuals from two groups are brought into a room to undergo a test in which errors are inevitable. A little while in, the experimenter leaves the room (fabricated excuse) leaving the subject alone with the opportunity to cheat. Group 2 has an extra condition, though: their was an antique chair in the room that they were told "was nothing, and that they say an old woman died in it and still sits in it to this day." Group 1 almost universally cheated to some degree while Group 2 almost universally didn't cheat, even though many of them didn't believe in ghosts. The factor was that the idea of being watched was implanted, which triggered modification of behavior.

From a standpoint of evolutionary psychology, during the period of social-psychological development, an individual's survivability is heavily dependent on the disposition of the rest of the group towards that individual. Favored individuals are treated better and are protected as well as more likely to be favored by mate selection, while disfavored individuals may even face exile, which is essentially removal from the gene pool. Judgments of an individual primarily stem from that individuals actions, so naturally, those who behave better while being observed will be judged more favorably. The problem that arises is, what if the individual doesn't know that he's being observed? In this case, if the individual was generally compelled to act as though he was being observed, then there would be a far less probability of that individual being judged unfavorably, thus, increasing overall survivability.

Sorry if this is a lot of text (even though it's still brief), but I find this tendency to be a strong element to the emergence of the concept of a deity and I'm assuming that proper studies exist somewhere. Thank you for any assistance!

https://www.staff.ncl.ac.uk...

http://journals.plos.org...

Thanks, Jane! The second I had found, but not the first. Both of these directly key into the imagery of eyes, which is a direct instigator to this effect. The first study here shows it in a more passive effect, so thank you. I am particularly looking for such studies that don't rely on persistent imagery (like eyes or mirrors), which I should have clarified. Thank you again for your help, Jane.

For further research, you might try a forward search. That's where you look for any later papers written by the authors of the study, as well as any papers that reference this paper. People who further the research done in these studies will likely reference them in their prior literature sections.

Regarding the first article, this link takes you to a list of the 146 articles that cite it. Might be worth sifting through: https://scholar.google.com...
Chaosism
Posts: 2,667
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4/11/2016 6:20:58 PM
Posted: 8 months ago
At 4/11/2016 6:13:00 PM, Burzmali wrote:
At 4/8/2016 8:35:27 PM, Chaosism wrote:
At 4/8/2016 7:56:13 PM, janesix wrote:
At 4/8/2016 6:35:26 PM, Chaosism wrote:
For the concept below, I am trying to find a reliable source or study, and I've failed to come up with anything, so I'd figure I'd shoot it out there to see if anyone has seen such a thing or anyone is just better at searching than I am.

I am looking for a scientific study on the psychological tendency in which humans passively assume that some agency is observing them (even when there is no direct evidence) and modify their behavior accordingly. I saw a demonstration of this on a clip from 'Of Fear and Faith' in which (briefly) individuals from two groups are brought into a room to undergo a test in which errors are inevitable. A little while in, the experimenter leaves the room (fabricated excuse) leaving the subject alone with the opportunity to cheat. Group 2 has an extra condition, though: their was an antique chair in the room that they were told "was nothing, and that they say an old woman died in it and still sits in it to this day." Group 1 almost universally cheated to some degree while Group 2 almost universally didn't cheat, even though many of them didn't believe in ghosts. The factor was that the idea of being watched was implanted, which triggered modification of behavior.

From a standpoint of evolutionary psychology, during the period of social-psychological development, an individual's survivability is heavily dependent on the disposition of the rest of the group towards that individual. Favored individuals are treated better and are protected as well as more likely to be favored by mate selection, while disfavored individuals may even face exile, which is essentially removal from the gene pool. Judgments of an individual primarily stem from that individuals actions, so naturally, those who behave better while being observed will be judged more favorably. The problem that arises is, what if the individual doesn't know that he's being observed? In this case, if the individual was generally compelled to act as though he was being observed, then there would be a far less probability of that individual being judged unfavorably, thus, increasing overall survivability.

Sorry if this is a lot of text (even though it's still brief), but I find this tendency to be a strong element to the emergence of the concept of a deity and I'm assuming that proper studies exist somewhere. Thank you for any assistance!

https://www.staff.ncl.ac.uk...

http://journals.plos.org...

Thanks, Jane! The second I had found, but not the first. Both of these directly key into the imagery of eyes, which is a direct instigator to this effect. The first study here shows it in a more passive effect, so thank you. I am particularly looking for such studies that don't rely on persistent imagery (like eyes or mirrors), which I should have clarified. Thank you again for your help, Jane.

For further research, you might try a forward search. That's where you look for any later papers written by the authors of the study, as well as any papers that reference this paper. People who further the research done in these studies will likely reference them in their prior literature sections.

Regarding the first article, this link takes you to a list of the 146 articles that cite it. Might be worth sifting through: https://scholar.google.com...

Thank you - much appreciated!
Akhenaten
Posts: 854
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4/12/2016 12:35:29 AM
Posted: 8 months ago
At 4/8/2016 6:35:26 PM, Chaosism wrote:
For the concept below, I am trying to find a reliable source or study, and I've failed to come up with anything, so I'd figure I'd shoot it out there to see if anyone has seen such a thing or anyone is just better at searching than I am.

I am looking for a scientific study on the psychological tendency in which humans passively assume that some agency is observing them (even when there is no direct evidence) and modify their behavior accordingly. I saw a demonstration of this on a clip from 'Of Fear and Faith' in which (briefly) individuals from two groups are brought into a room to undergo a test in which errors are inevitable. A little while in, the experimenter leaves the room (fabricated excuse) leaving the subject alone with the opportunity to cheat. Group 2 has an extra condition, though: their was an antique chair in the room that they were told "was nothing, and that they say an old woman died in it and still sits in it to this day." Group 1 almost universally cheated to some degree while Group 2 almost universally didn't cheat, even though many of them didn't believe in ghosts. The factor was that the idea of being watched was implanted, which triggered modification of behavior.

From a standpoint of evolutionary psychology, during the period of social-psychological development, an individual's survivability is heavily dependent on the disposition of the rest of the group towards that individual. Favored individuals are treated better and are protected as well as more likely to be favored by mate selection, while disfavored individuals may even face exile, which is essentially removal from the gene pool. Judgments of an individual primarily stem from that individuals actions, so naturally, those who behave better while being observed will be judged more favorably. The problem that arises is, what if the individual doesn't know that he's being observed? In this case, if the individual was generally compelled to act as though he was being observed, then there would be a far less probability of that individual being judged unfavorably, thus, increasing overall survivability.

Sorry if this is a lot of text (even though it's still brief), but I find this tendency to be a strong element to the emergence of the concept of a deity and I'm assuming that proper studies exist somewhere. Thank you for any assistance!

Sounds like you are seeking a logical reason to believe in God. I suggest you read the Bible. lol
Chaosism
Posts: 2,667
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4/12/2016 4:51:07 PM
Posted: 7 months ago
At 4/12/2016 12:35:29 AM, Akhenaten wrote:
At 4/8/2016 6:35:26 PM, Chaosism wrote:
For the concept below, I am trying to find a reliable source or study, and I've failed to come up with anything, so I'd figure I'd shoot it out there to see if anyone has seen such a thing or anyone is just better at searching than I am.

I am looking for a scientific study on the psychological tendency in which humans passively assume that some agency is observing them (even when there is no direct evidence) and modify their behavior accordingly. I saw a demonstration of this on a clip from 'Of Fear and Faith' in which (briefly) individuals from two groups are brought into a room to undergo a test in which errors are inevitable. A little while in, the experimenter leaves the room (fabricated excuse) leaving the subject alone with the opportunity to cheat. Group 2 has an extra condition, though: their was an antique chair in the room that they were told "was nothing, and that they say an old woman died in it and still sits in it to this day." Group 1 almost universally cheated to some degree while Group 2 almost universally didn't cheat, even though many of them didn't believe in ghosts. The factor was that the idea of being watched was implanted, which triggered modification of behavior.

From a standpoint of evolutionary psychology, during the period of social-psychological development, an individual's survivability is heavily dependent on the disposition of the rest of the group towards that individual. Favored individuals are treated better and are protected as well as more likely to be favored by mate selection, while disfavored individuals may even face exile, which is essentially removal from the gene pool. Judgments of an individual primarily stem from that individuals actions, so naturally, those who behave better while being observed will be judged more favorably. The problem that arises is, what if the individual doesn't know that he's being observed? In this case, if the individual was generally compelled to act as though he was being observed, then there would be a far less probability of that individual being judged unfavorably, thus, increasing overall survivability.

Sorry if this is a lot of text (even though it's still brief), but I find this tendency to be a strong element to the emergence of the concept of a deity and I'm assuming that proper studies exist somewhere. Thank you for any assistance!

Sounds like you are seeking a logical reason to believe in God. I suggest you read the Bible. lol

No, I was specifically referring to the human inclination to readily assume the presence of an observing agency, which entails a modification of personal behavior (either consciously or subconsciously) in response to anticipation of being the subject of judgment. This is not a reason to believe in god, but rather a factor in our natural psychology that makes such a notion appealing and seem more plausible, in a general sense.
Akhenaten
Posts: 854
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4/13/2016 12:03:34 AM
Posted: 7 months ago
At 4/12/2016 4:51:07 PM, Chaosism wrote:
At 4/12/2016 12:35:29 AM, Akhenaten wrote:
At 4/8/2016 6:35:26 PM, Chaosism wrote:
For the concept below, I am trying to find a reliable source or study, and I've failed to come up with anything, so I'd figure I'd shoot it out there to see if anyone has seen such a thing or anyone is just better at searching than I am.

I am looking for a scientific study on the psychological tendency in which humans passively assume that some agency is observing them (even when there is no direct evidence) and modify their behavior accordingly. I saw a demonstration of this on a clip from 'Of Fear and Faith' in which (briefly) individuals from two groups are brought into a room to undergo a test in which errors are inevitable. A little while in, the experimenter leaves the room (fabricated excuse) leaving the subject alone with the opportunity to cheat. Group 2 has an extra condition, though: their was an antique chair in the room that they were told "was nothing, and that they say an old woman died in it and still sits in it to this day." Group 1 almost universally cheated to some degree while Group 2 almost universally didn't cheat, even though many of them didn't believe in ghosts. The factor was that the idea of being watched was implanted, which triggered modification of behavior.

From a standpoint of evolutionary psychology, during the period of social-psychological development, an individual's survivability is heavily dependent on the disposition of the rest of the group towards that individual. Favored individuals are treated better and are protected as well as more likely to be favored by mate selection, while disfavored individuals may even face exile, which is essentially removal from the gene pool. Judgments of an individual primarily stem from that individuals actions, so naturally, those who behave better while being observed will be judged more favorably. The problem that arises is, what if the individual doesn't know that he's being observed? In this case, if the individual was generally compelled to act as though he was being observed, then there would be a far less probability of that individual being judged unfavorably, thus, increasing overall survivability.

Sorry if this is a lot of text (even though it's still brief), but I find this tendency to be a strong element to the emergence of the concept of a deity and I'm assuming that proper studies exist somewhere. Thank you for any assistance!

Sounds like you are seeking a logical reason to believe in God. I suggest you read the Bible. lol

No, I was specifically referring to the human inclination to readily assume the presence of an observing agency, which entails a modification of personal behavior (either consciously or subconsciously) in response to anticipation of being the subject of judgment. This is not a reason to believe in god, but rather a factor in our natural psychology that makes such a notion appealing and seem more plausible, in a general sense.
"Observing agency" (God). This is just one part of the brain communicating with the other part. "God" usually refers to the primitive brain (reptilian brain).

http://www.copingskills4kids.net...