I will provide a list of very common misconceptions that are found in today's politics and why they impact political views. I will use Wikipedia as my source for concrete facts, for it seems fairly reliable these days. Note that while the commonly held facts are wrong, the political views the facts support may not necessarily be flawed. I'll start by attacking the liberals.
"A perfectly free market creates monopolies." A market in perfect competition actually discourages monopolies from forming because when a monopoly rises, competition emerges to prevent the monopoly from increasing prices. In fact, companies in perfectly competitive markets earn profit that is equal to what they would get by keeping their money in a bank. This misconception used by liberals to argue that we need regulation in order to have a fair economy. Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perfect_competition
"The total amount of money in the economy chances only when the Fed prints more." Banks create credit, meaning they don't give borrowers cash, but create a deposit account that borrowers can draw from. Liberals use this incorrect fact to attack the rich who they often assume end up with money when the middle class loses money. Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commercial_bank
I'll switch to pointing out conservative misconceptions.
"Socialism is when everyone is paid equally." Socialism is when means of production are owned by workers in some way. Socialism doesn't say anything about people being payed equally and permits those who work harder to be payed more. This misconception is commonly used by conservatives to attack policies that are labeled socialist by arguing that socialism destroys any incentives for working hard. Source:https://en.Wikipedia.Org/wiki/To_each_according_to_his_contribution
"Socialism is when the economy is centralized around the government." It can, but it doesn't have to. This piece of incorrect information is used by conservatives to argue that socialism is bad because it makes the market inefficient through centralized control. Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Market_socialism
Of course, there are many other misconceptions on both sides of the political aisle. Let me reiterate that just because a reason for a political view is flawed does not necessarily mean the view is wrong.
They believe certain things, and refuse to acknowledge other opinions. There's too many examples, and I'd rather not sit here listing them, but a good word to sum them up is "Conservative". I find that the majority of conservatives fit the description in question. It is quite sad that our world has not progressed toward logic and facts yet.