The Arizona immigration law was consistent with federalism, but it was able to be challenged. This is exactly what happened and the Supreme Court struck down most of the law, although it did leave part of it intact. Arizona went well above and beyond any federal measures for thwarting immigration so I think it is a pretty good example.
Arizona's illegal immigration law is consistent with a federal government that gives much power to the state governments, but that doesn't make the law "right". But is it consistent within the US framework? Yes. That doesn't mean the federal government can't step in and stop it, which it has the right to per the US constitution.