The current state of the deficit is a response to economic and policy decisions that were not determined by the middle class. Given enough economic stimulus, revenues across the board will be raised, but major corporations attempt to avoid raising additional revenues by moving their operations to more "business-friendly" locations. The problem with this is that, because of free trade, these businesses often create poor working conditions in third-world nations. Business should be given no other option but to operate from within the United States, pay a living wage and benefits, and then the economy would be stimulated and revenues would be raised without having to raise middle class taxes.
I believe that policy makers can help the deficit without crippling the middle-class more. The only way I see fit in doing so is raising taxes for wealthy people. Not just raising in general, but increasingly higher the further up the ladder you go. A proper tax bracket for the wealthy is the only way to put a dent in the current deficit we hold.
The answer is simple. Increase taxes on the wealthiest Americans who can afford to pay quite a bit more, and reduce spending, particularly when it has gone haywire, as is the case with national defense. Add in some other minor cutbacks and a full implementation of the health care law, and the deficit will be on track for reduction.
It is possible to reduce the deficit without raising taxes on the middle-class, but it would most likely require a combination of raising taxes on the wealthy and significant cuts to government spending. This could be difficult for policy makes however as the Republicans generally oppose all tax increases and the Democrats generally oppose cutting government spending.
How can a country survive when half of its citizens pay virtually no taxes? What is the incentive for those of higher incomes to increase their spending in business if they know the more they make the more will be taken by the government. The argument that we should go back to the tax rates of the 1950's is correct. Back then only 236 individuals paid the 81% or higher tax rate, and those rates were severely cut by deductions and loopholes, which have since been closed. Also, back in the 50's, where everyone making $5k ($46k today) paid an effective tax rate of 20%. That seems more fair in spreading the responsibility around.