The Chinese government does not care more about consumer protection than that of the U.S. in the Windows case. In fact, the Chinese government does not care one iota about its people. That is clear by how it controls, with an iron hammer, every facet of life, from how many children they can have, to what it can watch on TV.
I don't think that the Chinese government getting involved in Windows 10 has anything to do with the fact that they care more about their citizens. Instead, I believe that it is just another form of control that is ultimately all about money and power. I am all for free enterprise instead of government over-reach.
The Chinese backlash over the Windows 10 upgrade push does not show the government is more concerned about consumer protection than the U.S. The government is complaining that the upgrade is forced, but there were similar complains in the U.S. This shows there is widespread complaints about the process that is not unique to the Chinese government.
The Chinese government may look like it is concerned about its people's purchasing choices with regards to Microsoft's Windows 10 upgrade, but really, it's a concern about consumerism as it relates to th e economy rather than a concern for the people. The Chinese government cares whether it can still make money off of Microsoft's new operating system rather than whether its people get ripped off.