Yes, Trump may be effective in Washington, if he sticks to pleasing the Republicans in Congress who want to press their own agenda. They will support him if he sticks closely enough to their agenda. However, it appears he may push forward with his own agenda, in which case he's on his own and will not likely be effective.
While Donald Trump is being touted as a political outsider who will shake up Washington, it is still run by politicians, and Trump will soon discover that there are rules to the game and they won't change over night. Draining the swamp is a clever catchphrase that appeals to his supporters but will be more difficult that anticipated.
I guess this question partly depends on your interpretation of the word "effective" in this sentence. I think Trump said a huge amount of things just to get himself in to office, many of which were either huge lies or just things that are politically not possible, like building the wall on the border of Mexico, it would be ludicrously expensive and not that effective. Schumer pressuring Trump about U.S. steel is just another pickle Trump will have to worm his way around. These situations will keep cropping up and for this reason I don't expect Trump to be effective.
No, Donald Trump will not be effective in Washington. He is completely inexperienced in government and woefully unprepared to deal with the problems facing the United States. He has also surrounded himself with incompetent appointees, such as Department of Housing and Urban Development nominee Ben Carson. This will ensure his failure.