Ill ask this question. Could an Alien Race Evolve on a planet with Oxygen? I think you know the answer to that! Just because we need oxygen to live does not mean all Alien life out there need oxygen. For an Alien, Oxygen could be very deadly for them. Its all relative!
Yes of course, not just in a lava planet. Remember they found organisms inside nuclear waste which we thought to be inhabitable. If the organisms adapt to the climate and things around it it is possible by a long shot. It would take some time thought to be considered a race.
It's certainly possible for life to grow and evolve anywhere- living things can withstand some harsh conditions (Google "Tardigrade" sometime). However, if life were to evolve to the point of a sentient species similar to humankind, then it would probably be very different than life on earth, giving that the surface temperature of this planet would probably be above water's boiling point. It would also be very difficult for them to evolve to more advanced life, as it would probably require some organic food source, which would mean that there would probably be lots of other strange life on that planet, too- or this alien race is basically a bunch of land whales, eating the tiny "krill" creatures that live on the surface. I'm sure that life could form anywhere, even in space (again, look up tardigrades. They pretty cool, and seem almost like they could live on a planet with a molten surface).
We have found life here on Earth in places we didn't think was possible, like at the bottom of the oceans where no light can penetrate. Life was feeding on the lava vents down there. In that respect, it's not unrealistic to think that life couldn't develop in a harsh environment such as that. I'm sure there are some wild forms of life we couldn't even conceive of.