The relatively simple and political nature of Islam makes it very easy to use as a tool to build political entities and from that cultures. Rationalism thrived in Islamic settings as well which gave us Averroes. This same mentality led to things like math advances in algebra. So, would I use the word allot? I guess.
I would not say just Islam contributed, but the people of the Islamic empire yes they did in fact contribute much to the world at one time. Religion is garbage. Humans do NOT need religion to contribute to the world. So I personally give credit to the innovative and more intellectual side of the Islamic empire and not its religious side. This was the work oh human ingenuity not sky daddy madness.
Often people criticize Islam for the apparent endorsement of war or the aggressive posture to convert without ever contemplating how the religion has contributed to the world's intellectual progress and technological development. While Christian Europe was sinking and thrashing in ignorance during the Dark Ages, Islam was making huge progress in the fields of medicine, mathematics, physics, astronomy, geography and architecture. Significant sea-faring technology, such as the quadrant and astrolabe, were first invented by Muslims; improved navigational maps were also introduced. The concept of zero as an integer value was first introduced to Europe through Islamic pilgrims. World history has been positively impacted by Islam, so it would be wrong to dismiss Islamic culture and religion and something worthy of being tuned out.
They named about 65% of the stars we have on record and advanced astronomy immensely.They Introduced gunpowder into the west from China, this directly led to the development of firearms. We use Arabic numerals, instead of Roman ones introduced by Muslims once they acquired it from India. They controlled part or most of Spain for over 700 years, about 20% of the Spanish gene pool is from N. African, Arabic, or Jewish origin dating to the era when Muslims ruled Spain.
They helped form a Christian identity in Europe. Charlemagne of France is crediting with stopping Islamic forces. Had he failed most of W. Europe would likely have been conquered by Muslims and perhaps extinguished Christianity which was still spreading and coalescing. Spain was the most technologically advanced nation in Europe as a result of the flow of information and technology that spread throughout the Islamic world. This benefited Spain greatly as they had the only universities and best libraries in Europe. Europe was part of the third world at the time and Islamic culture and government was the the world's superpower. Spain defeated the Muslim Moors in 1492 , Christian martyrs spread from Europe especially Scandinavia joined to resist Muslim encroachment of Christian lands. Most of Spain and Portugal were conquered except for a heavily defended Castle laden strip on the north coast of Spain and Portugal. From here Christians battled for centuries to rid themselves of Muslim rulers.
Spain won it's independence it used the infrastructure and advancements the Moors had put in place to become the next superpower. They sailed west in an attempt to go to India and avoid trading with Muslims for commodities like spices. They inadvertently discovered the new world which was resource rich. They used this to build up armies and dominated Europe while declaring war on Islam. An estimated 80% of the world's silver was extracted from mines in Mexico and Peru which fueled Europe's economic development. Spain would go bankrupt routinely financing it's war against Islam. Northern European countries manufactured weapons and bought Spanish bonds that Spain used to pay with the precious metals it was acquiring from it's American colonies. The American colonies were exhausted of easily acquired resources and the value of gold and silver plummeted in Europe due to the glut of availability. Spain used the money mostly for war and conquest and little on infrastructural development, as a result the average citizen hardly benefited from the spoils. Spain begun it's decline but held on to a few possession of their former empire (Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines) until its defeat by the Americans around the turn of the 20th century. Islam was contained and became fragmented instead of a single political entity. It can be said that the War on terror is just a continuation of the animosity between the Christian West and the Muslim Middle East. The Ottoman Empire was a formidable threat too Christian Europe until the end of World War I.
Islam is a nation with such a massive religious back round such as the location of the christian "promised land" or the holy city of Jerusalem to the Islamic people. The tablets found in some of the many dig sites in the islamic countries have proven many factors involving both Christianity and Islam.
On top of all that they provided a cultural picture of a land almost lost in time. So yes The small group of Islamic countries in the Middle East have defiantly given back to the world
This question is loaded, as the facts are it was not Islam that contributed but individuals that lived in Islamic countries that contributed to science and other subjects. Using the same analogy we can show that Christianity has contributed more, as the USA is predominantly Christian so every invention/patent/etc out of the USA can be attributed to Christianity. Illogical argument 101.