John Boehner managed to waste a lot of precious time trying to extend the Bush-era tax cuts, there's no doubt about it. He tried to play a pitiful strategy to get Republicans to stall on this decision in order to get more leverage down the road. All of this fell through, but he still managed to get re-elected. He still has the opportunity to create more confusion and chaos while U.S. citizens continue to suffer.
The entire "Plan B" (which amazingly seems like ancient history just a week later) was just one of many maneuvers in this fiscal game. That one event meant little. Boehner is probably ruined as Speaker because he's mostly a moderate stuck in the middle of a war between opposing sides. I don't really believe Boehner even expected that measure to be enacted.
Boehner has been in a can't win position over this whole budget problem. He needs to satify his base, and should, but he also has to reach some kind of compromise with Democrats and Obama, all of whom likely don't even want a solution. Boehner has just been doing the best he can, but even he probably knows it won't make a difference
With all the political posturing it is difficult to tell what the intent is for all involved. Boehner cannot have been that out of touch with his cohorts not to know they would balk at his Plan B. I think it was a move to protect his own reputation politically, make it look like at least he was trying, and some "other guys" were making it rough on him. Or perhaps it was just some political saber rattling to show just how tough these guys are going to be. I'm really interested in this topic and have followed it daily and even I can't figure out what the heck is going on. It's hard to imagine what people who get their news in a half an hour before bedtime are thinking. To them, this Plan B, caught in a five minute film clip, probably got him a lot of sympathy. So, no, I don't think it hurt him personally.