No, US schools do not teach information relating to the age of the Earth to a sufficient degree, because they teach the age of the earth as though it is fact when there are great disagreements. There are scientists who think the earth is young, but that information is never presented to the students.
Students get a lot of history, but a great deal of that has to do with human activities and especially with wars that we have fought and won. What needs to be taught is the history of the earth so that we realize how it came into being and why it needs to be protected.
If US schools provided sufficient information relating to the age of the Earth, then there would be far less debate regarding geological age. Every grade school student should be required to take at least one natural science class that focuses on the Earth, geology, eras, evolution and the like. If this were to occur, there would be far less debate, as these science classes could adequately educate all students on accepted scientific ideas.
There are too many schools in the US that do not provide correct information regarding the age of the Earth. It is understandable that some schools would like to teach that the Earth is merely 6,000-10,000 years old because of their religious beliefs. But in my opinion, even in those schools, they should offer scientific education as well. I attended a conservative Christian school and was taught young-earth Creationism, with no information on opposing viewpoints, except how they could be wrong. But the truth is to succeed in post-secondary education, you need those viewpoints even if you disagree with them for faith-based reasons.