It may seem that many minorities are not protected, but the fact is most of them if not all have their rights protected in America's Democracy. The reason why this question is asked and is of concern is because the minority are a small group, and they often are not as often on television or media as the majority groups.
America strives to be a fair country to all of its citizens. Minorities are protected from discrimination and must be treated fairly. Although there is freedom of speech and people have the right to believe whatever they want, it is not permitted to be openly racist or prejudiced to any group.
Legally, minorities are protected. There are laws on the books making all people equal under the eyes of the United States government. That being said, law isn't necessarily practice. Sometimes people are nevertheless discriminated against. A recent study, for example, showed that women (who are technically not minorities, but are still deemed as so) are penalized from being hired if they are mothers, whereas men are seen as more hire-able if they are parents. So even though legally minorities are protected, there is still bias present in places like the workplace.
The American democracy protects everyone who lives here. The problem is usually conflict between the majority and a minority group, but this country was designed to be acceting and respectful to all. Of course, there were some times when this wasn't the case--some seriously barbaric and unforgivable times--but the American democracy protects the rights of all.
The democratic process does not take minorities opinions into account. Officials are elected by votes. Minorities only make a small percentage of the votes that elect officials. It is not likely that the elected parties will represent the minorities best interest. The laws passed by those elected officials will probably not serve the interest of those minorities either.