I think Goebbels already hated Jews, and believed that Jews were the engine behind capitalism's success. Thus, his hatred for capitalism. That said, I think he would look for any reason to hate them. I'm sure this wasn't the only connection he "made" to justify his beliefs that they were inferior, but one of many.
Yes, I think that Joseph Goebbels hatred of capitalism fueled his anti-Semitism, because the Jews were seen as very good at capitalism. Goebbels hated capitalism and the people who profited from capitalism. That put blame falsely on the Jews, because they thrived in the capitalist system. Hatred of capitalism was one of Goebbels' influences.
Joseph Goebbels grew up in an era in which anti-Semitism was deeply rooted in European culture, some of those roots stretching back centuries. Much of that anti-Semitism predated capitalism. Although he may have justified his hatred of Jews by pointing to the evils of capitalism, it's very likely that if capitalism never existed, he would've found a different reason to hate them.
Also, remember that much of the anti-Semitism in Nazi Germany had more to do with the German's bitterness over WW1 and the economic hardships of the 20s than capitalism, and the need for a scapegoat. So if anything, Goebbel's hatred was probably fueled more by the prevailing idea that the Jews had sold the Germans out at the Treaty of Versailles than anything having to do with capitalism.
I do not believe Joseph Goebbels hatred for capitalism is connected to his anti-Semitism. As a person that despises what capitalism has done to America I can identify that the hatred of capitalism can easily be obtained by noting its affects. It does not explain how someone would acquire racist ideals like anti-Semitism.
I think this man simply saw an opportunity during the holocaust, so he took it and ran with it. He used propaganda to fuel the Nazi uprising, and he simply had a reason behind it that he thought would push him to a lot of money, power, and fame later on.