The Fifth Amendment prevents the abuse of government authority which makes us unique from all other countries. It provides us protection against dictatorships and gives the citizens the peace of mind that they deserve. It also protects against hate crimes from individuals that are convicted of a crime they committed.
Yes, the 5th Amendment laws make the American justice system unique from all other countries, because there are some unique protections in the 5th Amendment that other countries don't have. The 5th Amendment contains unique due process protections, and it also contains the protection that felonies have to be charged by indictment or by grand jury.
The Fifth Amendment is just one reason why the American justice system is unique from other countries. It protects citizens from too much government power. The separation of powers and a bicameral legislature elected by the people are two other things that make America's republic form of government unique. With the exception of the U.S. Civil War from 1861-1865, Americans have had continual transitions of power every four years that have been peaceful. That peaceful transition has made America one of the strongest countries in the world.
I do not believe the Fifth Amendment laws make the American justice system unique from all other countries. I believe there are many good and valid points of the Fifth Amendment that have been changed and amended with newer laws and many of them don't apply in the laws of today's justice system.