Life, it has been said, is often a state of mind. From a particular point of view such a statement can be quite true. By delving into the nature of cognitive function and the attempt to harness artificial intelligence, we will push the limits on what it means to be a human being. Most humans hold some sort of moral code. As the notion of sentience expands and evolves so to will the ideas of right and wrong which strike to the heart of our consciences.
Yes, cognitive augmentation can broaden our conscience, because cognitive augmentation gives us a great deal of knowledge about ourselves. Cognitive augmentation allows us to scientifically measure psychological function. This gives us a great deal of insight into the human conscience and psychological processing. This has great potential to awaken knowledge of human thought.
Cognitive augmentation and AI don't broaden our consciousness. These technologies don't broaden our consciuosness because they are speculative technologies. These things don't really exist except in the minds of authors of science-fiction. One they these technologies may exist, and they will no doubt be transformative technologies, but until then they have no effect on the mind of man.
Cognitive augmentation is still a new field, with limited applications. The prospect of changing aspects of the human mind do not necessarily indicate a broadening, as the technology itself is being produced within a culture of hyper exploitation and competition taken to pathology. Thus, augmentation may very well narrow consciousness, by simply making us more efficient extensions of the profit machines and militarily backed power centers we already serve.