Yes, high-speed rail fosters a sense of community, because people can meet and travel together on trains. There must also be a great deal of collaboration between communities and governments in order to put high-speed rail into place. It is something that people can be proud of that their government does for them.
No, high speed rail does not foster a sense of community because it disrupts the natural countryside where small communities may congregate. In addition, its tracks tend to be so long that communities have no need to form, as everyone is quick to get inside the city to work or shop.