Yes, divine intervention was at play during the failed attempted assassination of Louis Phillipe. The fact he was merely grazed by a bullet and 18 people killed and 22 injured, has an extremely low probability. Louis Phillipe served as king an additional 15 years after this attempt and lived an additional two years. This allowed him the opportunity affect foreign policy. Algeria was defeated and relationships with England were built.
This scenario sounds like the would-be assassin was not very prepared. It was probably just a stroke of luck that the king was not seriously injured or wounded. The king was probably up on a platform away from everybody while the people around the guy were probably right next to him.
No, to say this was divine intervention would discredit the lives lost. The king is just one man; who's to say his life is more important than those around him? Divine intervention would not sacrifice many for the sake of one. Perhaps if the roles were flipped, one could make a proper argument.
Devine intervetion probably would not have led to such a big tragedy and the deaths of so many people. Instead it is far more likely that this was a simple accient caused by the poorly built guns of the time combined with a shooter that did not know how to handle a gun.