You have to understand a few simple things, such as that an edge piece will never be placed in the positions of a corner piece, and that if you flip only an edge or corner piece the cube will not be solved.
However, other than that, by remembering algorithms and by increasing your TPS (turns per second), you will 'master' a Rubik's cube.
There are over 40 quintillion possible arrangements for all the 54 squares on the cube. So finding the right match would probably take forever, you would think. Actually, that is not the case. The trick is to 1. Solve the white cross, 2. Solve the white face and first layer, 3. Solve the middle layer, 4. Solve the yellow cross, 5. Solve the yellow face, and 6. Arrange the squares on the last layer.