Imagine in your language you did not have a word for time, thus time isn't a concept of which you can understand without learning a new word in a new language. Language categorizes and organizes our sense data. As of culture I am less sure, you could suggest that certain types of slang arise in certain cultures, and thus effect how we understand. Or even more simply one culture may have different values to another culture and thus you may value courage in one culture and humility in another.
Yes, I think that the way that I think is shaped by language and culture, because we are all a product of our experiences. If a person has experienced life differently than I have, they are likely to have different opinions about things. You might have different traumas or different success that affect your beliefs.
Language, we could argue, constructs human experience, and culture, too, can organize how we experience ourselves in the world. For instance, Western "Enlightenment" ideals posit a progressive destiny for humanity, and Christian traditions paint mankind as the center of it all, not as a speck of dust in a vast cosmos. I have been shaped by these; even the very idea that there is a "meaning" to life itself is something I can't quite get rid of, even if I try to think in an egoless, cosmic way.
Someone's culture clearly shapes how people think. "It takes a village to raise a child." Someone in sub-Saharan Africa thinks differently from an Afghani tribesperson who thinks differently from an American growing up on Cape Cod. Those three people were raised in different backgrounds and probably have vastly different worldviews and different concepts regarding religion, materialism, consumer activity and lifestyle.
A language is just a way to express yourself, and culture is just where you come from. The two have nothing to do with the way that you think unless you are racist or something. It should have no influence on your thoughts, as they are just forms of expression.