We may well live in an era when a 3-D printer can reproduce man-made versions of what we think are the differences between the sexes: a penis, a vagina and breasts. We delude ourselves into thinking that we can attach those visual markers to any human body, take a man-made concoction of pharma derived hormone pills and voila we conquered sex differences. As if they have no relevance in a gender neutral world.
The biological female body evolved over thousands of years to reproduce the species. Whether or not a biologically female chooses to reproduce, or visually looks like one, her ovaries and uterus have an incredible, awesome, impact on her physiology over the course of her lifetime. Due to the male driven bias in science, research and medicine, we are no where near understanding the complicated evolution and intricacies of the impact of the ovaries and uterus on this human system. It's ridiculously patriarchical and scientifically ignorant to suggest the female biology is in any way similar to the male one or that we can overcome sex differences by whisking away gender norms.
Sadly our biology was used against us to limit us, to exclude us, to dismiss us and in many cases to define oppressive gender roles regardless of culture, race, or class over history. Waving away our hugely significant biological differences in reproductive evolution is not an intelligent informed step forward. It will simply lead to a new form of dismissing, oppression and denigration. There is no scientific wisdom in disregarding how nature evolved and impacts the biological female body in wonderful complicated and unique ways.
There is a biological difference between male and female brains. More specifically, there is a biological difference between the brains of any two human beings. No two brains are exactly alike. Heck, even the same person has biological changes in their brain as they age. We all have the same basic parts, but we all have significant differences.
For all the differences between men and women that are merely a product of culture and not nature, there are still many, many aspects of human biology that show distinct differences between the two sexes, and one of them is the brain. Research shows that men and women have different levels of hormones in the body, for example, and this affects how the brain responds.
There is a difference. However, it may not be as stark black and white as some people think. Some people are born with a body and a brain that do not quite match up when it comes to gender. Biological differences will influence the person to act more feminine or more masculine.
Women can keep babies inside their bodies and men cannot. This alone signals a difference in brains. Hormones are controlled by the brain and our maternal instinct is also. Men cannot produce pregnancy hormones and cannot have maternal instinct. Another example of brain difference is women's quicker development earlier in life versus men who develop later on.
There is a biological difference between the male and female brain just as there are differences in other areas of male and female bodies. This difference however does not effect the ability for either sex to be fully functioning, scientific, caring, nurturing, compassionate, strong, non-emotional, logical, or analytic skills. Those skills are learned and developed over time through socialization.
Speaking from purely a structural point of view, there is no essential difference between the brain of a male and that of a female. They grow the exact same way during formation, barring any life-threatening defects, and assuming a normal childhood will develop roughly the same way until adulthood. The brain serves the same functions regardless of gender and, again, barring significant physical or psychological abnormalities will function the same. The only difference between the two is the specific hormones acting on them at any given time, which, granted, will allow for progressive changes in a specific direction according to gender. However, this is a basic structural difference in the human body, not the brain, and only affects the brain indirectly.
The male and female brains have no difference, they carry out the same functions and are virtually indistinguishable. The only thing that may make men and women think and act differently are hormones that affect how the brain reacts. And hormones themselves, although they affect the brain, do not make a brain "different". Just because a woman's brain produces produces more estrogen doesn't make it biologically different, it just produces different amounts of the same hormones a man produces. The brain is the same, the hormones and psychology are different.