In football, a main part of the game is tackling down opponents in an effort to control the ball. In basketball, physically touching an opponent almost always results in a foul. As such, the nature of the game means that injuries are much less frequent and less severe than in football.
Even if there are a number of sports related injuries in the NBA - foot, shoulder, knee etc, Marfan's Syndrome is not caused by sports or other activity. At an elite sport level, regardless of the type of sport, there is always a risk of injury with intensive training, repetitive movements and body contact.
The NBA does not cause the same type of injuries as the NFL. The NFL is much harder on the body then the NBA is. The NBA is still prone to injuries though just not the same kind of injuries. Both the NFL and the NBA are filled with injuries just different types.
No, the NBA does not cause a lot of related injuries, like the NFL does, because the NBA does not have as much contact as the NFL does. In the NFL, people hit their heads into each other all the time, on purpose. In the NBA, where there is head trauma it is unlikely to be intentional.