Regarding the 2010 "digital bomb' that was planted but never detonated in the Nasdaq, I believe it was the plot of an independent Russian hacker from St. Petersburg named Aleksandr Kalinin and not initiated by the Russian government. According to a CNN article, those familiar with the investigation said that Aleksandr Kalinin was the likely culprit. The article says that the U.S. Secret Service and FBI caught Kalinin relentlessly attacking NASDAQ computers between 2007 and 2010.
I believe that there are a lot of aspects of government that are not public. I am not a conspiracy theorist, however I do believe that sometimes the government utilizes resources that create certain situations in order to evoke a public response. It is not outlandish to think that the government, in Russia, or otherwise would hire a hacker to disrupt economical functions in a system as huge as Nasdaq.
The planted digital bomb was initiative of the Russian government and not the plot of the Russian hacker Aleksandr Kalinin. Since time in memorial, the Russian and US government have always been in a cold war with each other and always try to outdo each other by espionage ventures. As such, I believe that by planting of the digital bomb and having it go off, the Russian government had in mind that it would be the new superpower economic wise.
I feel that it was Aleksander Kalinin that worked on his own on the digital bomb. I think that without more evidence it is hard to say that the Government was involved. You can not be held accountable as a Country for every single time one of your Citizens does something bad.