Federal governments should definitely limit how much states and provinces borrow from foreign governments. By limiting these financial transactions, federal governments will also limit how much debt they owe to outside sources. All in all, this is an excellent and very economically sound practice that should become much more common than it is.
Borrowing from foreign governments puts states, provinces and federal governments in a precarious position. When you owe someone money, that obligation can take many forms, such as giving favors, loaning troops or agreeing to back policies that may not be in your best interest. Yes, the federal government should limit states and provinces from borrowing money from foreign governments. The federal government should also limit its borrowing from foreign governments. While it's important to maintain good relations with other countries, borrowing can easily get out of hand and you may wake up one day to a country calling in that marker and taking over your country as compensation for the debt.
I can't picture a scenario that would warrant a state borrowing from a foreign government, but if they were to- I think it would be the federal government's job to limit the amount of money that can be borrowed. Because the states are part of the country, any state debt that is unable to be repaid would become national debt, so of course the federal government should limit the potential federal debt.
Yes, states should be limited to the amount of money they can receive from a foreign government. It would be a conflict of interest between a state and the federal government if the state were to receive money from a nation that the federal government had issues with or the country were on the brink of war with them.