From global warming, to the current mass extinctions, to mass deforestation, dying coral reefs, depletion of the ozone layer, GMO contamination of crops and weeds, pesticide-induced die-offs of vital pollinators, and existential threats of biowarfare, nanotechnology run amok (the "grey goo" scenario), the potential for disaster at the LHC, Chernobyl, Fukushima and the potential for a nuclear holocaust...Every single one of these problems, risks and crises facing the world today is the direct result of scientific and technological "progress". Every single one! Even the best arguments in favour of scientific "progress", i.E. The miracles of modern medicine such as antibiotics to control infectious disease, produce blowback in the form of aggressively antibiotic-resistant bacteria. And the solution to this galaxy of threats proffered by scientists is...More science and technology! That's right, the best solution to our problems is more of what caused them! Or perhaps, some of these scientific geniuses (many of whom probably got their degrees without having to pass a single university level course in the humanities or philosophy) might someday realize that when you put godlike power into the hands of creatures with stone-age brains and medieval morals and ethics, serious problems are likely to ensue, and the solution sure as heck isn't more scientific and technical "progress!". If we can't get our own house in order on the inside - philosophically, morally, ethically - and in our relationships with each other and the planet, no amount of external sci-tech gimmickry is going to save us from ourselves.
Just about every single major scientific or technological breakthrough has two sides: A good side, and a bad side. For instance, Nuclear Fission/Fusion. The good: We can use it for power. The Bad: One atomic bomb is devastating to the planet. Also, the Internet. The good: We can use it to make purchases, do research, and share our views and opinions. The bad: It be used for identity theft, scams, and porn. The bad edge of science hasn't killed us yet, but when a crazy enough dictator gets his hands on said technology, the world as we know it will have changed.
The world will eventually be destroyed by some form or the other. If it is by a nuclear war or the supernova of our star, Sol, the Earth will eventually be destroyed. The avenue that has been chosen by humans to destroy the world is that of progress. Progress itself is inherently destructive. Look at pre-medieval Europe, most of it was a lush forest full of diverse species, but today 85% of that forest is gone and many species have been wiped out in the name of progress. Whether the destruction our progress brings about manifests as global warming, the mining of all resources, or some other manner, science will bring about the destruction of the world.
But it will happen anyway, so we should continue progressing forwards as forwards is the only way to go.
The world is not infinite, as the sun burns hotter Earth will eventually be inhabitable. If we somehow leave the planet before the Earths natural destruction we still have to worry about the universes natural destruction, when the rapid expansion of the universe results in a heat death (everything becomes so cold that carbon based life becomes impossible). When we understand how the world works we can overcome these obstacles, and that is precisely what science aims to achieve. However there are radical groups who chooses to use science against humanity because they don't really believe in science.
There is much of the discoveries in sciences and technology which is still left to be made. Some examples are those of the time machines and all. If science is controlled in a limit, then science will not emerge as a thing which will be destroying the world. Don't forget, science is the thing which has changed life in the modern period.
Religion has already destroyed the world, Science is progress and the sooner we realize that, the sooner we can progress. I'm sick and tired of the past decade being nothing than backwards. The current generation of politicians worldwide have taken us back rather than enable science to progress humanity.
Some of the inventions of science could wipe this planet out, there's no mistaking that. They, however, won't for a lot of reasons, mutually assured destruction being at the top of the list. Science is far more likely to save us from ourselves than to be the reason we no longer exist.
Science will not lead to the destruction of the world. It is quite the opposite. Science will help the world thrive and advance. Through science, we will be able to adjust to the times and discover new concepts and ways to deal with hardships. Science will help us much more than it will hurt us.