Denial of Ancient Egypt's black origins
<strong><ins>This suggests that, at least through the Early Dynastic period, the inhabitants of the Nile valley were a continuous population of local origin, and no major migration or replacement events occurred during this time.</ins></strong>
<strong>Studies of cranial morphology also support the use of a Nubian (Kerma) population for a comparison of the Dynastic period, as this group is likely to be more closely genetically related to the early Nile valley inhabitants than would be <ins>the Late Dynastic Egyptians, who likely experienced significant mixing with other Mediterranean populations</ins></strong> (Zakrzewski, 2002).<strong> A craniometric study found the Naqada and Kerma populations to be morphologically similar (Keita, 1990).</strong> Given these and other prior studies suggesting continuity (Berry et al., 1967; Berry and Berry, 1972), and the lack of archaeological evidence of major migration or population replacement during the Neolithic transition in the Nile valley, we may cautiously interpret the dental health changes over time as primarily due to ecological, subsistence, and <strong>demographic changes experienced throughout the Nile valley region.</strong>"-- AP Starling, JT Stock. I<strong>n studies based on anatomical traits and measurements of crania, similarities have been found between Nile Valley crania from 30,000, 20,000 and 12,000 years ago and various African remains from more recent times</strong> (see Thoma 1984; Brauer and Rimbach 1990; Angel and Kelley 1986; Keita 1993).<strong> <ins>Studies of crania from southern predynastic Egypt, from the formative period (4000-3100 B.C.), show them usually to be more similar to the crania of ancient Nubians, Ku****es, Saharans, or modern groups from the Horn of Africa</ins> than to those of dynastic northern Egyptians or ancient or modern southern Europeans.</strong>
Another source of skeletal data is limb proportions, which generally vary with different climatic belts. Sometimes Africa is defined using cultural factors, like language, that exclude developments that clearly arose in Africa.<strong> For example, sometimes even the Horn of Africa (Somalia, Ethiopia, Eritrea) is excluded because of geography and language and the fact that some of its peoples have narrow noses and faces.