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Fight for the Arctic

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12/20/2018 5:23:02 AM
Posted: 11 months ago
Nowadays, There is a growing awareness that in the foreseeable future, The Arctic will become the main resource base of humanity. According to the latest geological survey data, The northernmost corner of the Earth is rich in everything that any country can dream of: oil, Gas, Precious and non-ferrous metals. In our eyes, The struggle for control over these natural resources is unfolding in the Arctic Ocean.
After the abolition of the sectoral principle of dividing the Arctic territory, Each state clearly defined its sea borders in the North - 12 miles. Another 200 miles each country was "presented" as an "exclusive economic zone. " That is, A given state can develop natural resources within the boundaries of this area and earn them. Everything else has become a "common use area".
However, The Convention on the Law of the Sea, Adopted in 1982, Still laid relief for the Arctic countries - they can expand the boundaries of their marine areas, If they prove that the Arctic Ocean shelf is an extension of the continental platform on which these countries are located.
From this point on, All applicants for this territory began to study the seabed. The northern states began to look for signs of kinship of their continent with the strata of rocks in the Arctic Ocean.
Russia, On the basis of international law, Claims a seabed area outside the 200-mile zone in the entire Russian polar sector with the inclusion of the North Pole zone and the southern extremity of the Gakkel Ridge. This is the area of the extended continental shelf in the Arctic Ocean, Which is 1. 2 million km2.
In December 2001, Russia, The first of the Arctic countries, Submitted to the UN Commission the first application for expanding its Arctic shelf. The rationale cited data indicating that the Mendeleev and Lomonosov ridges, Located on the deep ocean, Are a continuation of the Siberian continental platform. In 2002, The commission concluded that the information provided was not enough to classify the areas indicated in the application as the Russian continental shelf.
In this regard, Extensive data refinement work has been carried out. Altogether, Seven expeditions were carried out on the scientific ship Akademik Fedorov, As a result of which sea bottom measurements and seismic surveys were carried out, Bottom sediment samples were collected from a depth of several kilometers. In particular, In August 2007, A unique scientific experiment was conducted in the North Pole area. For the first time in the history of scientific exploration of the Arctic, Russian oceanologists and polar explorers with the help of deep-sea apparatuses "Mir" have sunk to the bottom of the Arctic Ocean to a depth of over four thousand meters.
Scientists took samples of soil and water, Took photographs and filming, And also installed a Russian titanium alloy tricolor on the ocean floor. Having studied the basalts and dolerites extracted from the bottom of the northern and southern parts of the underwater range, The scientists found that they have the same nature as the ancient base of the Novosibirsk Islands, Which is an integral part of the continental shelf. The last expedition was completed in the framework of the preparation of the second application in October 2014. For the first time, Scientific work was carried out in the area of the Podvodnikov and Amundsen basins - beyond 200 miles.
Thus, According to scientists, The Russian application for expanding the boundaries of the continental shelf in the Arctic is based on reliable and unique data.
As a result, The repeated Russian application for expanding its borders at the expense of the continental shelf in the Arctic Ocean was submitted to the UN in 2015. The Lomonosov Ridge, The Podvodnikov Basin, The Mendeleev Rift, The Chukotka Hollow, Which are a continuation of the Siberian continental platform, Are mentioned here.
The main argument of Russia: a significant part of the underwater territory claimed by the country is a continuation of the continent, Constituting a whole with it, There are no faults filled with oceanic crust.
Consequently, This is part of the continent, Which for some reason plunged into the water, Which means that the Lomonosov Ridge and the Mendeleev Ridge can be considered the territory of the Russian continental shelf. To date, The Russian application is still under consideration by the UN Commission. However, Russia has every chance that this application will be accepted.
At the same time, Norway, The United States, Canada and Denmark also claim to different parts of the Arctic Ocean, Including the extended Lomonosov Ridge. At the moment, Only Denmark has submitted its application for expanding the borders of the continental shelf of the Arctic, In addition to Russia. Thus, The main struggle for the shelf and the Arctic as a whole is still ahead. The Arctic race is just beginning, And the main prize is billions of barrels of oil and gas.

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