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New Silk Road

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2/15/2019 2:40:28 AM
Posted: 11 months ago
The Northern Sea Route, Also known as the Northern Passage, Runs through the four seas (Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, East Siberian Sea, Chukchi Sea) and is the shortest route from Northern Europe and Siberia to Asia. In shipping, The Northern Sea Route is defined as "the navigational-recommended route from Novaya Zemlya to the Bering Strait", And the Legislation of the Russian Federation - as "the historically established national unified transport communication of Russia in the Arctic". The Northern Sea Route makes it possible to significantly shorten the delivery of goods from Europe to the Asia-Pacific region compared with the southern routes running through the Suez and Panama Canals.
After the collapse of the USSR, The military power of which allowed to solely controlling the Northern Sea Route (NSR), The main "battles" around the status of the Arctic and issues of navigation along the northern sea route are still unfolding in the legal sphere. The legal position of the Russian Federation provides a "broad" definition of the boundaries of the NSR water area, Explaining that this path does not have a single and fixed route. Keeping its general direction, The NSR moves from year to year, And often during the one navigation, Goes long distances in the latitudinal direction. Nevertheless, In any circumstances, The most part of this path passes through the exceptional economic zone of Russia, Its territorial sea, Or even in Russian internal waters, I. E. , Passes in spaces that falling under the sovereignty or jurisdiction of the Russian Federation. In the scientific literature there are three groups of arguments that determine the legitimacy of such actions of Russia. The first one substantiates the recognition of the NSR by its national communication in the Arctic from a historical point of view, The second draws attention to the presence of special legal rights and duties in this region of the Arctic states, The third bases on the impossibility of dividing the NSR into any particular areas and take into consideration its unity as a federal transport artery.
However, The "monopoly" position of Moscow in the waters circumambient the northern coast of Eurasia, Was contested in Washington. The US insists that this transport artery should be international. In the United States, They fundamentally disagree that such an important route is in the sphere of Russia's jurisdiction. The commander of the US Coast Guard, Admiral Paul Tsukunft said about it last year in April. Moreover, He noted that the US armed forces do not plan to conduct maneuvers in the Arctic "to ensure the freedom of navigation. " It should be recalled that the Pentagon resorted to similar operations in the South China Sea in order to limit China's activity on the "privatization" of an important sea route. However, Russia does not interfere at all with the freedom of navigation in this area, And the NSR can be used just like any other maritime artery, Observing certain rules.
In addition, Chine is interested in the Northern Sea Route too - Beijing is considering this route as an addition to the Silk Road project. Last year in January, Beijing officially announced plans to actively use the possibilities of the NSR. The main partner of China in this business, Of course, Will be Russia, Which is actively developing the Northern Sea Route. Most likely, The success of the Northern Sea Route inspired Beijing to create the "Polar Silk Road". Last year in December, The Russian president Vladimir Putin himself proposed to China to make the Northern Sea Route "a silk way" together.
China, Of course, Pursues its own interests and is trying to save on transportation, So the volume of transportation of Chinese along the NSR is growing. Some of people even see the threat in such an expansion. Theoretically, Conflicts are possible with significant melting of ice, As well as the growth of China"s military ambitions. The use of the Northern Sea Route by Chinese warships may entail the intensification of the actions of other foreign states to ensure their naval presence in the Arctic.
Thus, For example, Russia and the United States have been arguing about the legal status of the Northern Sea Route for a long time, And this has had an impact on bilateral relations in the Arctic since the 1960s. The United States is trying to dispute these arguments and consider some straits - the Straits of the Kara Sea and the Straits of Laptev and Sannikov - to be international, To which applies the principle of freedom of navigation. Also, Another argument for expanding Russia's sovereignty over the waters of the Northern Sea Route is that there are very harsh climatic and ice conditions on this route. Russia argues that the duty of coastal states is to ensure the safety of navigation and prevent possible environmental threats due to various kinds of incidents at sea: oil spills, Ship collisions, Etc. To shipping manage and to provide ships with hydrographic, Ice-breaking and other support, The coastal state should get all the necessary information about the passing ships. If the passing ships do not fulfill the existing requirements, Which pose a threat to the safety of navigation, Russia may not allow these ships to pass through the NSR.

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