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Servants not slaves in Hindu civilization

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8/4/2020 10:17:53 PM
Posted: 1 year ago

The classical Indian economy did not depend on slavery and there were no slave markets. One can contrast this with the subsequent legitimisation of slavery in Christianity, Islam and Communism. Both Christianity and Islam approved of enslaving those who did not subscribe to their respective faiths, Also known as infidels.

Traditionally, Neither the Indian nor the Chinese civilisations were particularly well-known for practicing slavery. During the ancient and classical periods, Neither India nor China ever practiced chattel slavery, Wherein slaves were traded like commodities in a market. Chattel slavery was common in many other contemporary societies. One possible reason could have been that the relatively large populations in India and China provided enough non-slave human labour. Thus, The impetus to enslave people on a massive scale was perhaps not there. In contrast, The economies of many other societies in Europe, Africa, The Americas and West Asia, Some even until modern times, Prominently depended upon slavery.

During the Islamic rule in India, Real slavery took hold in a different way as the Islamic rulers began enslaving the Indian population to sell them abroad for profit or to utilise their slave labour within the country.
But that ended when India defeated the Islamic Rulers.

Dasas in ancient and classical India

Although chattel slavery was not seen, Some forms of bondage did exist in ancient and classical India. At the outset, It is important to highlight the fact that the word dasa used in many Indian texts does not necessarily refer to slave. It usually refers to a servant. It appears that the circumstances of the dasa was far better in ancient Indian society in contrast to the excessive brutality experienced by the slaves of contemporary societies such as Egypt, Greece or Rome. While examining the ancient past of India, One comes across the comparatively constrained existence of any form of bondage.

What role did Christianity play in African Slavery?

Historical records show that Islam and Christianity played an important role in enslavement in Africa. The Arab-controlled Trans-Saharan slave trade helped to institutionalise slave trading on the continent. And during the 'age of expedition', European Christians witnessed caravans loaded with Africans en-route to the Middle East. Others arriving much later in West Africa observed slavery in African societies, Leading them to assume that African enslavement was intrinsic to the continent.

For many of these early European explorers, The Bible was not only regarded as infallible, It was also their primary reference tool and those looking for answers to explain differences in ethnicity, Culture, And slavery, Found them in Genesis 9: 24-27, Which appeared to suggest that it was all a result of 'sin'.

In the Genesis passage, Africans were said to be the descendants of Ham, The son of Noah, Who was cursed by his father after looking at his naked form. Moreover, In Genesis 10, The 'Table of Nations' describes the origins of the different 'races' and reveals that one of the descendants of Ham is 'Cush' - Cush and the 'Cushites' were people associated with the Nile region of North Africa.

In time, The connection Europeans made between sin, Slavery, Skin colour and beliefs would condemn Africans. In the Bible, Physical or spiritual slavery is often a consequence of sinful actions, While darkness is associated with evil. Moreover, The Africans were subsequently considered 'heathens' bereft of Christianity, Although scholars now suggest that Christianity reached Africa as early as the early 2nd century AD and that the Christian communities in North Africa were among the first in the world. However, Europeans doubtlessly refused to acknowledge the relevance of African Christianity as it appeared irreconcilable with the continent's cultural surroundings.

The Trans-Atlantic Slave a Trade.

"In fact, For almost 150 years, Ghana, On Africa"s west coast, Was the center of the British slave trade. Western traders arrived in ships loaded with manufactured goods to barter or trade for slaves. Those who were sold had often been captured in tribal warfare; some had simply been kidnapped to sell to European slave traders.

it is estimated from as many as 20 million West Africans were captured between the end of 15th century until 1870 (when the slave trade was abolished). Only half of them survived the harsh conditions on the voyages " and 10 million of them actually made it to the Americas.

Ghana's role in the trans-Atlantic Slave Trade.

Ghanaians, It seems, View the Trans-Atlantic slave trade as an unfortunate historical human calamity which must not be allowed to happen again.
But the question is how many Ghanaians are truly aware of the role people living within that part of the continent at the time played in the actual act of capturing and selling their own people in return for things such as gunpowder and kola? The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade and Ghana, An exhibition mounted as an attempt to educate the public on the historical occurrence of the slave trade, Is currently on at the National Museum in Accra.

Not only is there evidence of some 35 slave markets dotted around the area in West Africa where Ghana is situated, There are also many routes, Transit camps and objects available to establish that the trade took place under horrendous conditions. Several of these transit camps and markets have been identified within the area where Ghana is currently situated. And some of these inland sites are characterised by water cisterns, Remnants of slave warehouses, Rock boulders and trees with large or long exposed roots for chaining the enslaved. Burial grounds for slaves, And their ancestors as well as their masters are still visible at places like Salaga, Saakpuli and Kafaba in the Northern part of Ghana. Other places include Assin Manso and Effutu in the Central Region area, And Atorkor, Peki Dzake and Adafianu in Anloland.

The shaming of Africans.

Christianity played a major role in African slavery. But it was the Afticans themselves who made it possible and supplied the slaves. Their complicity and brutality in creating the dehumanizing conditions and treatment of captured Africans in slave camps betrayed the innate jungle culture that the world witnesses as uniquely African. This archetypal jungle behaviour is pervasive throughout African history and has earned Africa the distinction of being the dark continent and the negroid Africans identified as being of sub-human ancestry.

"The forts and castles which started as European trading posts later becoming dungeons and slave auction areas which dot along the coast of Ghana even till today, Don't give the whole picture.

This exhibition tackles the story of the slave trade from another more important angle which has, Hitherto, Not been told much. It tells how deeply African chiefs and kings themselves were involved in the trading, Ordering raids and kidnaping, And arranged markets where the captured were sold. Toward the end of the 17th century and in the first few decades of the 18th, Slave raiding and kidnaping became the major occupation among the Akwamu, Akyem, Kwahu, Krepi and Fante in the southern part of the Gold Coast and among all the major ethnic groups in the northern part of the country. It tells how those captured had to walk several kilometres under brutal conditions. Chained to each other with neck to hands iron shackles, They only got to rest at transit camps before arriving at the markets. Their new masters would then distinguished them from each other by marking them with branding irons which were put in fire to become red hot before they were stamped on specific parts of their body.
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8/4/2020 11:19:12 PM
Posted: 1 year ago
The so called untouchables low caste servants/slaves are becoming millionaires.

Swaminathan S. Anklesaria Aiyar
Research fellow, Cato Institute"s Center for Global Liberty and Prosperity
Indian Untouchables Become Millionaires
https://www. Huffpost. Com/entry/indian-untouchables-becom_b_945408? Guccounter=1
Nov 01, 2011
It is now the 20th anniversary of economic reforms that converted India into a miracle economy, Growing at 8 percent per year in the last decade. Critics complain that this has benefited only a few upper-crust millionaires, Bypassing poorer groups. This is simply wrong. The poorest, Lowest of all Hindu castes " once called untouchables and now called dalits (meaning the oppressed) " have started spawning millionaires too.

The Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) is India"s oldest business chamber. Dalits have now set up a Dalit India Chamber of Commerce and Industry (DICCI). This is no more than a start: dalits continue to remain at the bottom of the social and income ladders. But at long last some have ceased to be objects of pity and become objects of envy.

Many dalit entrepreneurs came from the lower middle class, Got a decent education, And then made good. But others came from laborer families, And their rise is especially heartening.

Ratibhai Makwana"s father, Once a farm labourer, Later made leather pickers, Used in textile machinery. Dalits have traditionally had the dirty task of disposing of dead animals, And in the process have become leather workers. Ratibhai greatly expanded his father"s small business by getting into plastic intermediates. His family now runs a sugar mill in Uganda and plans a cement plant there too. His revenues exceed $80 million a year.

Sanjay Khsirsagar came from a lower middle class dalit family. His first venture was in high-end sound equipment. Later he created a construction company, APA Infraventure, Which has become big in Mumbai slum redevelopment. He is now building himself a penthouse by redeveloping the very slum he grew up in.

Bhagwan Gawai once worked alongside his father as a construction worker. But he got a decent education and joined a government oil company, HPCL. He was not well treated there, And successfully sued the company for caste discrimination. His lucky break came when he was posted in Dubai by HPCL. There he developed new contacts, And started a plastics trading business with Arab partners. This business now has a turnover of $20 million.

Ashok Khade"s father was a cobbler, Working under a tree in Mumbai. Ashok went to college, And then joined a government company building offshore platforms, Mazagon Docks. He acquired skills in offshore maintenance and construction. Today his company DAS Offshore is a major offshore services company, And he now plans a jetty fabrication yard that will employ 2, 500 workers.

Sushil Patil, Another son of a laborer, Was lucky enough to go to college (which waived his last year"s fees). Bitten by the entrepreneurial bug, He started several ventures, All which failed. Yet he persevered, And ultimately struck gold by setting up a construction company, IEPC. This now has revenues of $ 65 million.

Another dalit, Balu, Made good after much travail with a soldering equipment business. He says 32 girls in a row rejected him as a marriage partner because of his poor prospects! He claims many dalit businessmen still hide their caste name to avoid discrimination.

In all these cases, Education helped dalits rise. But rural government schools are pathetically substandard, Leaving most dalits barely literate. Even so, They have made astonishing strides, According to a seminal study by University of Pennsylvania Prof. Devesh Kapur and others.

This study looked at dalit outcomes over the last 20 years in sub-districts of west and east Uttar Pradesh, India"s largest state. The proportion of dalits owning their own business was up from 6% to 36. 7% in the west, And from 4. 2% to 11% in the east. The proportion in non-traditional occupations (like tailors, Masons etc) was up from 14% to 37% in the east, And from 9. 3% to 42% in the west.

Political parties have long promoted government job reservations for dalits as the way to social progress. Yet, The study shows the proportion of dalits in government jobs in Uttar Pradesh has actually fallen from 7. 2% to 6. 8% in the east, And risen marginally from 5% to 7. 3% in the west. Clearly, Job reservation has not driven the state"s social and economic revolution. The main drivers have been the new opportunities arising from economic reforms, Plus the rise of dalit politician Mayawati. She has been Chief Minister of the state four times in the last two decades, And done much to raise their status and reduce historical discrimination against them.

Critics complain that India"s economic reforms have created new inequalities. They may even criticize the rise of dalit millionaires as a new sort of inequality. Nonsense. Viva la such inequality!
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8/8/2020 4:20:49 PM
Posted: 1 year ago
Africa is again the world"s epicenter of modern-day slavery.
https://qz. Com/africa/1333946/global-slavery-index-africa-has-the-highest-rate-of-modern-day-slavery-in-the-world/

Africa just recorded the highest rate of modern-day enslavement in the world.

Armed conflict, State-sponsored forced labor, And forced marriages were the main causes behind the estimated 9. 2 million Africans who live in servitude without the choice to do so, According to the 2018 Global Slavery Index. And despite these practices being widespread, Slavery has remained a largely invisible issue, In part, Because it disproportionately affects the most marginalized members of society, Such as minorities, Women, And children.

Slavery was especially prevalent in Eritrea and Mauritania, Where slavery has even been, At times, An institutionalized practice. In Eritrea, For instance, The one-party state of president Isaias Afwerki has overseen a notorious national conscription service accused of drafting citizens for an indefinite period, Contributing to the wave of refugees fleeing the country. Workers that have claimed that they were forced to work in the nation"s first modern mine are also currently suing the Vancouver-based mining company Nevsun that owns a majority stake in the mine.

The situation is more acute in Mauritania, Which has the title of the world"s last country to abolish slavery. For centuries, Members of the black Haratin group were caught in a cycle of servitude, With the slave status being inherited. Reports have also shown the existence of government collusion with slave owners who intimidate servants who break free from their masters. A January landmark ruling from the African Union stated Mauritania wasn"t doing enough to prosecute and jail the perpetrators of slavery.

In recent years, Serfdom in the continent has attracted global attention after videos showed "slave markets" in Libya where African migrants were being auctioned off in car parks, Garages, And as well as public squares. Migration to Libya has also put Nigerian women in the crossfire, With many being sucked into Italy"s dangerous world of sex trafficking. During the World Cup games in Russia, Anti-slavery group Alternativa said sex traffickers were also planning to exploit Russia"s lax visa rules for the soccer fanfare to pimp Nigerian women.

The study, Conducted in collaboration with Walk Free Foundation and the International Labor Organization, Also notes how consumers all over the world are getting products that at some stage were touched by the hands of modern-day slaves. This was especially the case with the G20 nations, Who have strong laws and systems against servitude, But who collectively import $354 billion worth of at-risk products annually.

As previous reports have shown, Cases of slavery still persist lower down the supply chain in commodity-producing nations like the DR Congo and Cote D"Ivore.

Why are Americans killing black when they can be resold as slaves?

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