Hi, guys notice that the question is that whether this policy is key to controlling population. From the perspective of this question, of course it is. Those who say no are always talking about other issues like the imbalance between female and male. Imagine that we don't have this policy, there must be more population than now. Although this policy has many disadvantages, it indeed helps in the controlling of population.
I strongly feel that the One Child Policy that China has in place has made a large significance with the overall population problem in China. Since China is the largest country in the world by population (with India very close behind) the policy that it has in place is a great way to slow the growth of its population. Since it's inception in 1979, the country has reported that nearly 200 million births were averted because of their policy, which means roughly 70 million per decade. That is a significant decrease to help China build its infrastructure to support its current population.
Before the policy was changed, just this year, the women of China could pay fines to have a baby. This means that although women were only legally allowed to have one child, paying for a second one was easy and effective. The fines weren't hard to pay, so many women didn't have to worry about the one child policy.
It may slow down the rate of population growth. The problem China is having is parents are birthing a lot more males than females , with the one child policy. This means parents are talking drastic measures to get their sons married and it comes down to wealth. The youth over there seems extremely unhappy and I do not know how productive a society can be when their youth is so unhappy. China might want to try something else to control their population.
When a population has excess food they ultimately produce more children - this is seen throughout the world, notably in China and India. However, as countries become richer, the fertility begins to go down after a certain point, as seen in the west. China has since decided to ease the One Child Policy.
In reality, China's One Child Policy is sexism at its finest. It's not an effective form of controlling the country's population, though. Parents are penalized for wanting more children while the nation's population continues to explode regardless. China can't control its own population and needs to instead improving living conditions for everyone.
The one child policy has not controlled China's population growth. The one child policy does not stop the population from growing, but it just slows the rate at which it is growing. People are still having kids and elderly people are living longer than ever. The policy has not controlled the population at all.
If China is so concerned with parents only having one child then they should focus more on preventing pregnancy in the first place instead of killing innocent babies after the fact. I know many cultures do not believe in birth control but it has to make more sense to use it than to follow a strict and sometimes deadly "one child" policy that it's citizens follow now.
China's "One Child" policy is encouraging sexism and decreasing the woman population drastically. Eventually there won't be enough women to go around and there won't be a next generation. Also, it forces parents to murder their children or the doctors will do it for them. I read that a women in China that was pregnant with her second child and was rushed to a hospital. Half-way through her labor a doctor injected her with a lethal poison. When the dead fetus was born the doctors left her to walk home bleeding and mourning her dead child. Without the " One Child" policy the population would decrease anyway because of the modernization of our culture. Most parents only want one or two children these days because their parents had many children and they didn't appreciate their childhoods. I know I wouldn't want five or more kids.
When the kids of China grow up there will an enormous imbalance of men and women. The one child policy could potentially wipe out the country. This generation of children will be primarily boys and if the one child policy continues there won't be enough women in the country to keep the population at a reasonable level. Eventually all the boys are going to be the minority because people will try to overcorrect it and they would have the opposite problem. If they keep it up there won't be anyone left.
It sounds logical, but the one child policy is not going to control the population of China, or at least not in a good way. It is making a very individual decision into a political one. And until the politics favors females as much as males, then males will continue to be chosen. This is terrible for the culture as a whole as the male demographic becomes larger with all the attendant problems.
Even if the One Child Policy and all other population controls were lifted tomorrow, it is unlikely that there would be any boost to the Chinese population. The effects of urbanization and a modern lifestyle is enough to discourage Chinese from having large families. If one looks to China's east Asian neighbors, it can be seen they too have low birth rates despite having no population controls.