Captain Marvel and Superman have a whole lot of power. Laser eyes, Super physical strength, Attitudes, And you've seen captain marvel rip open spaceships in a single strike. Could Superman do that? Probably yes but I gotta say Superman doesn't stand a chance unless he was built to withstand space radiation.
Please look to Justice League #19-25. Now I'm not gonna go into too much detail but the general gist of it is that: superman is trapped in a dimension of darkness created to trap him, While the rest of the justice league is sent to the 6th dimension. There they meet the world forger, An all-powerful being who creates universes by striking his hammer (kinda a big deal). Superman began to move fast, Like really fast, The comic says "at a speed beyond physics, Beyond imagination", He then punches through the fabric of his prison back into the fourth dimension before continuing through to the 6th using sheer force then still has enough momentum to instantly KO the world forger. A spaceship is not trouble for the man of steel
Superman took a nuke and healed by being in the sun. When he died his alien body was still alive and brought back.
Captain Marvel can breathe in space but I do not see her pulling an ET resurrection.
Superman destroyed an alien army and mopped the justice league.
Plus you are forgetting that he could actually see flash move and almost caught up to him.
Unlike miss Mary sue they gave him a weakness and made him bleed.
Still I think superman would win because he actually holds back and we have not seem the limits to his power. Marvel already is at full power and the MCU seemed to have made the characters weaker.