The fall of a civilization can always be traced back to the decline of the strong male presence. Rome was known for their fine arts and fancy living. Men quit working with their hands, losing their ability to defend the city from outside attacks. This is the case in modern society where technology has made us weak.
It is unlikely for any one country to lose 10% of it's male population during a war let alone a single battle simply because of how wars are fought. Barring a nuclear war, it would take a very long, drawn out war on the scale of requiring the reinstatement of the draft for such a large percentage of the male population to be lost.
While we sadly do not live in a world free of war, we do not see the kinds of battles that we once saw. The lives lost in the recent Middle Eastern conflicts pale in comparison to those lost during WW1 and WW2. I don't see us returning to the style of battle that leads to high causalities.
The battle of Cannae was a battle fought between the Carthaginians and Romans. It ended in a decisive victory for Carthage. This would likely never happen today. Carthage and Rome were the two greatest powers in the region. A similar scenario today would be if the UK fought a war with France and invaded it. If the UK did have a war with France, it would be stopped within days due to international pressure. Many powerful countries would not allow something like that to happen such as the US. It might be true for countries with smaller populations and power.